Emerging evidence suggests that ultrasonography of lung is a fast, inexpensive, widely available bed-side diagnostic tool which is useful for quick and early diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates and has good accuracy in identifying consolidation and alveolar-interstitial syndrome. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnoea or acute respiratory failure in the respiratory intensive care unit and helps in monitoring treatment response. Ultrasonography of lung has also been found to be useful in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, traumatic lung contusion and lung consolidation as well. There is a need for developing specific guidelines for establishing the standards of training and education regarding lung ultrasonography in India.
Anantham D, Ernst A. Ultrasonography. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Murray JF, Nadel JA, editors Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine; 5th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders-Elsevier; 2010: pp 445-60.
Mayo PH. Ultrasound evaluation of the lung. In: Levitov A, Mayo PH, Slonim AD, editors Critical Care Ultrasonography. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009: pp 251-8.
Koenig SJ, Narasimhan M, Mayo PH. Thoracic ultrasonography for the pulmonary specialist. Chest 2011;140:1332-41.
Reissig A, Copetti R, Kroegel C. Current role of emergency ultrasound of the chest. Crit Care Med 2011;39:839-45.
Tutino L, Cianchi G, Barbani F, Batacchi S, Cammelli R, Peris A. Time needed to achieve completeness and accuracy in bedside lung ultrasound reporting in intensive care unit. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2010;18:44.
Frassi F, Gargani L, Gligorova S, Ciampi Q, Mottola G, Picano E. Clinical and echocardiographic determinants of ultrasound lung comets. Eur J Echocardiogr 2007;8:474-9.
Eisen L, Doelken P. Ultrasound evaluation of the pleura. In: Levitov A, Mayo PH, Slonim AD, editors Critical Care Ultrasonography. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009: pp 245-50.
Lichtenstein D. Should lung ultrasonography is more widely used in the assessment of acute respiratory disease? Expert Rev Respir Med 2010;4:533-8.
Bouhemad B, Zhang M, Lu Q, Rouby JJ. Clinical review: bedside lung ultrasound in critical care practice. Crit Care 2007;11:205.
Via G, Lichtenstein D, Mojoli F, Rodi G, Neri L, Storti E, et al. Whole lung lavage: a unique model for ultrasound assessment of lung aeration changes. Intensive Care Med 2010;36:999-1007.
Lichtenstein DA. General Ultrasound in the Critically Ill. New York: Springer-Verlag Berlin Haidelberg; 2005: pp 96-133.
Gargani L. Lung ultrasound: a new tool for the cardiologist. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2011;9:6.
Soldati G, Sher S. Bedside lung ultrasound in critical care practice. Minerva Anestesiol 2009;75:509-17.
Diacon AH, Brutsche MH, Solèr M. Accuracy of pleural puncture sites: a prospective comparison of clinical examination with ultrasound. Chest 2003;122:436-41.
Diacon A, Theron J, Bollinger C. Transthoracic ultrasound for the pneumonologist. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005; 11:307-12.
Aberle DR. Future directions of research in thoracic imaging. Radiology 1998;206:9-10.
Peris A, Tutino L, Zagli G, Batacchi S, Cianchi G, Spina R, et al. The use of point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound significantly reduces the number of radiographs and computed tomography scans in critically ill patients. Anesth Analog 2010;111:687-92.
Lichtenstein D, Goldstein I, Mourgeon E, Cluzel P, Grenier P, Rouby JJ. Comparative diagnostic performances of auscultation, chest radiography, and lung ultrasonography in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 2004;100:9-15.