The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 60 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Joint Indian Chest Society – National College of Chest Physicians (India) Guidelines for Spirometry

Ashutosh N. Aggarwal, Ritesh Agarwal, Sahajal Dhooria, K.T. Prasad, Inderpaul S. Sehgal, Valliappan Muthu, Navneet Singh, D. Behera, Rajesh Chawla, J.K. Samaria, S.N. Gaur, Anurag Agrawal, S.K. Chhabra, Vishal Chopra, D.J. Christopher, Raja Dhar, Aloke G. Ghoshal, Randeep Guleria, Nirmal K. Jain, Ashok K. Janmeja, G.C. Khilnani, Raj Kumar, Narayan Mishra, Anant Mohan, P.R. Mohapatra

Citation Information : Aggarwal AN, Agarwal R, Dhooria S, Prasad K, Sehgal IS, Muthu V, Singh N, Behera D, Chawla R, Samaria J, Gaur S, Agrawal A, Chhabra S, Chopra V, Christopher D, Dhar R, Ghoshal AG, Guleria R, Jain NK, Janmeja AK, Khilnani G, Kumar R, Mishra N, Mohan A, Mohapatra P. Joint Indian Chest Society – National College of Chest Physicians (India) Guidelines for Spirometry. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2018; 60 (3):159-201.

DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-60-3-159

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 18-11-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


PDF Share
  1. ATS statement. Snowbird workshop on standardization of spirometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;119:831–8.
  2. Quanjer P. Standardized lung function testing. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests. European Community for Coal and Steel. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1983;19:1–95.
  3. American Thoracic Society. Standardization of spirometry - 1987 update. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:1285–98.
  4. American Thoracic Society. Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144:1202–18.
  5. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC. Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J 1993;16(Suppl.):5–40.
  6. British Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the measurement of respiratory function. Respir Med 1994;88:165–94.
  7. American Thoracic Society. Standardization of spirometry, 1994 Update. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:1107–36.
  8. Levy ML, Quanjer PH, Booker R, Cooper BG, Holmes S, Small I, et al. Diagnostic spirometry in primary care: proposed standards for general practice compliant with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations: a General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) document, in association with the Association for Respiratory Technology and Physiology (ARTP) and Education for Health. Prim Care Respir J 2009;18:130–47.
  9. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336:924–6.
  10. Guyatt GH, Rennie D, Meade MO, Cook DJ. Users' Guide to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. New York: McGraw Hill; 2008.
  11. Hutchinson J. On the capacity of the lungs, and on the respiratory functions, with a view of establishing a precise and easy method of detecting disease by the spirometer. Med Chir Trans 1846;29:137–252.
  12. Jouasset D. Standardization of respiratory function tests in countries of the European coal and steel region. Poumon Coeur 1960;16:1145–59.
  13. Renzetti AD, Jr. Standardization of spirometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979;119:693–4.
  14. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J 2005;26:319–38.
  15. Hankinson JL, Petersen MR. Data analysis for spirometry instrumentation standards. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977;115(Suppl.):116.
  16. McCarthy DS, Craig DB, Cherniack RM. Intraindividual variability in maximal expiratory flow-volume and closing volume in asymptomatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975;112:407–11.
  17. Cochrane GM, Prieto F, Clark TJ. Intrasubject variability of maximal expiratory flow volume curve. Thorax 1977;32:171–6.
  18. Dawson A. Reproducibility of spirometric measurements in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1966;93:264–8.
  19. Rozas CJ, Goldman AL. Daily spirometric variability: normal subjects and subjects with chronic bronchitis with and without airflow obstruction. Arch Intern Med 1982;142:1287–91.
  20. Johns DP, Ingram CM, Khov S, Rochford PD, Walters EH. Effect of breathing circuit resistance on the measurement of ventilatory function. Thorax 1998;53:944–8.
  21. Madsen F, Frolund L, Ulrik CS, Dirksen A. Office spirometry: temperature conversion of volumes measured by the Vitalograph-R bellows spirometer is not necessary. Respir Med 1999;93:685–8.
  22. Vooren PH. A nomographic ruler for body temperature, pressure, saturated with water (BTPS) correction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1967;96:324–5.
  23. Mackenzie JG. A nomogram for B.T.P.S.-volume corrections in pulmonary ventilation tests. Thorax 1963;18:358–60.
  24. Linn WS, Solomon JC, Gong H, Jr, Avol EL, Peters JM. Temperature standardization of multiple spirometers. J Occup Environ Med 1998;40:148–52.
  25. Johnson LR, Enright PL, Voelker HT, Tashkin DP. Volume spirometers need automated internal temperature sensors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:1575–80.
  26. Johns DP, Hartley MF, Burns G, Thompson BR. Variation in barometric pressure in Melbourne does not significantly affect the BTPS correction factor. Respirology 2004;9:406–8.
  27. Pincock AC, Miller MR. The effect of temperature on recording spirograms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;128:894–8.
  28. Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Culver BH, et al. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Eur Respir J 2012;40:1324–43.
  29. Quanjer PH, Hall GL, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Stocks J, Global Lungs I. Age- and height-based prediction bias in spirometry reference equations. Eur Respir J 2012;40:190–7.
  30. Parker JM, Dillard TA, Phillips YY. Impact of using stated instead of measured height upon screening spirometry. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:1705–8.
  31. Golshan M, Amra B, Hoghoghi MA. Is arm span an accurate measure of height to predict pulmonary function parameters? Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2003;59:189–92.
  32. Golshan M, Crapo RO, Amra B, Jensen RL, Golshan R. Arm span as an independent predictor of pulmonary function parameters: validation and reference values. Respirology 2007;12:361–6.
  33. Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Ezekiel LM, Jindal SK. Statistical estimation of height from arm span in north Indian subjects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;44:329–34.
  34. Quanjer PH, Capderou A, Mazicioglu MM, Aggarwal AN, Banik SD, Popovic S, et al. All-age relationship between arm span and height in different ethnic groups. Eur Respir J 2014;44:905–12.
  35. Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Jindal SK. Interpreting spirometric data: impact of substitution of arm span for standing height in adults from North India. Chest 1999;115:557–62.
  36. Chhabra SK. Using arm span to derive height: impact of three estimates of height on interpretation of spirometry. Ann Thorac Med 2008;3:94–9.
  37. Koegelenberg CF, Swart F, Irusen EM. Guideline for office spirometry in adults, 2012. S Afr Med J 2012;103:52–62.
  38. Garcia-Rio F, Calle M, Burgos F, Casan P, Del Campo F, Galdiz JB, et al. Spirometry. Arch Bronconeumol 2013;49:388–401.
  39. Verrall AB, Julian JA, Muir DC, Haines AT. Use of noseclips in pulmonary function tests. J Occup Med 1989;31:29–31.
  40. Yanev I. Importance of nasal clipping in screening investigations of flow volume curve. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 1992;34:25–8.
  41. Chavasse R, Johnson P, Francis J, Balfour-Lynn I, Rosenthal M, Bush A. To clip or not to clip? Noseclips for spirometry. Eur Respir J 2003;21:876–8.
  42. Newall C, McCauley TM, Shakespeare J, Cooper BG. Is it necessary to use a noseclip in the performance of spirometry using a wedge bellows device? Chron Respir Dis 2007;4:53–7.
  43. Sipoli L, Martinez L, Donaria L, Probst VS, Moreira GL, Pitta F. Spirometry in healthy subjects: do technical details of the test procedure affect the results? PLoS One 2014;9:e107782.
  44. Agarwal D, Gupta PP, Sood S, Gupta KB. Significance of noseclips during spirometric maneuver in patients with COPD. J Assoc Physicians India 2006;54:251–2.
  45. Madsen F. Validation of spirometer calibration syringes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2012;72:608–13.
  46. Hankinson JL, Gardner RM. Standard waveforms for spirometer testing. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982;126:362–4.
  47. Lefebvre Q, Vandergoten T, Derom E, Marchandise E, Liistro G. Testing spirometers: are the standard curves of the american thoracic society sufficient? Respir Care 2014;59:1895–904.
  48. Liistro G, Vanwelde C, Vincken W, Vandevoorde J, Verleden G, Buffels J, et al. Technical and functional assessment of 10 office spirometers: a multicenter comparative study. Chest 2006;130:657–65.
  49. McCormack MC, Shade D, Wise RA. Spirometer calibration checks: is 3.5% good enough? Chest 2007;131:1486–93.
  50. Spirometry (Adult) Guideline. Document Number QH-GDL-386:2012. Queensland: Queensland Health; 2012.
  51. Dirksen A, Madsen F, Pedersen OF, Vedel AM, Kok-Jensen A. Long-term performance of a hand held spirometer. Thorax 1996;51:973–6.
  52. Walters JA, Wood-Baker R, Walls J, Johns DP. Stability of the EasyOne ultrasonic spirometer for use in general practice. Respirology 2006;11:306–10.
  53. Perez-Padilla R, Vazquez-Garcia JC, Marquez MN, Jardim JR, Pertuze J, Lisboa C, et al. The long-term stability of portable spirometers used in a multinational study of the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Care 2006;51:1167–71.
  54. Skloot GS, Edwards NT, Enright PL. Four-year calibration stability of the EasyOne portable spirometer. Respir Care 2010;55:873–7.
  55. van den Boom G, van der Star LM, Folgering H, van Schayck CP, van Weel C. Volume calibration alone may be misleading. Respir Med 1999;93:643–7.
  56. Ninaber MK, Schot R, Fregonese L, Stolk J. A syringe simulation of biological controls for quality assessment of prospective lung volume measurements. Respiration 2008;76:187–92.
  57. Hancock KL, Schermer TR, Holton C, Crockett AJ. Microbiological contamination of spirometers - an exploratory study in general practice. Aust Fam Physician 2012;41:63–4.
  58. Burgos F, Torres A, Gonzalez J, Puig de la Bellacasa J, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Roca J. Bacterial colonization as a potential source of nosocomial respiratory infections in two types of spirometer. Eur Respir J 1996;9:2612–7.
  59. Singh V, Arya A, Mathur US. Bacteriology of spirometer tubing and evaluation of methodology to prevent transmission of infection. J Assoc Physicians India 1993;41:193–4.
  60. Gough J, Kraak WA, Anderson EC, Nichols WW, Slack MP, McGhie D. Cross-infection by non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae. Lancet 1990;336:159–60.
  61. Hazaleus RE, Cole J, Berdischewsky M. Tuberculin skin test conversion from exposure to contaminated pulmonary function testing apparatus. Respir Care 1981;26:53–5.
  62. Side EA, Harrington G, Thien F, Walters EH, Johns DP. A cost-analysis of two approaches to infection control in a lung function laboratory. Aust N Z J Med 1999;29:9–14.
  63. Guidelines on Airborne Infection Control in Healthcare and Other Settings. New Delhi: Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India; 2010.
  64. Hendley JO, Wenzel RP, Gwaltney JM, Jr. Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self-inoculation. N Engl J Med 1973;288:1361–4.
  65. Govan JR, Brown PH, Maddison J, Doherty CJ, Nelson JW, Dodd M, et al. Evidence for transmission of Pseudomonas cepacia by social contact in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 1993;342:15–9.
  66. Burton M, Cobb E, Donachie P, Judah G, Curtis V, Schmidt WP. The effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8:97–104.
  67. Savolainen-Kopra C, Korpela T, Simonen-Tikka ML, Amiryousefi A, Ziegler T, Roivainen M, et al. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus - hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently. J Med Virol 2012;84:543–7.
  68. Levy JW, Suntarattiwong P, Simmerman JM, Jarman RG, Johnson K, Olsen SJ, et al. Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009-2010. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2014;8:13–6.
  69. Dancer SJ. Mopping up hospital infection. J Hosp Infect 1999;43:85–100.
  70. Andersen BM, Rasch M, Kvist J, Tollefsen T, Lukkassen R, Sandvik L, et al. Floor cleaning: effect on bacteria and organic materials in hospital rooms. J Hosp Infect 2009;71:57–65.
  71. Hiebert T, Miles J, Okeson GC. Contaminated aerosol recovery from pulmonary function testing equipment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:610–2.
  72. Standards for TB Care in India. New Delhi: Central TB Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, and World Health Organization, Country Office for India; 2014.
  73. Rutala DR, Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Thomann CA. Infection risks associated with spirometry. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:89–92.
  74. Depledge MH, Barrett A. Aseptic techniques for lung function testing. J Hosp Infect 1981;2:369–72.
  75. Denison DM, Cramer DS, Hanson PJ. Lung function testing and AIDS. Respir Med 1989;83:133–8.
  76. Unstead M, Stearn MD, Cramer D, Chadwick MV, Wilson R. An audit into the efficacy of single use bacterial/viral filters for the prevention of equipment contamination during lung function assessment. Respir Med 2006;100:946–50.
  77. Bracci M, Strafella E, Croce N, Staffolani S, Carducci A, Verani M, et al. Risk of bacterial cross infection associated with inspiration through flow-based spirometers. Am J Infect Control 2011;39:50–5.
  78. Leeming JP, Pryce-Roberts DM, Kendrick AH, Smith EC. The efficacy of filters used in respiratory function apparatus. J Hosp Infect 1995;31:205–10.
  79. Kirk YL, Kendall K, Ashworth HA, Hunter PR. Laboratory evaluation of a filter for the control of cross-infection during pulmonary function testing. J Hosp Infect 1992;20:193–8.
  80. Canakis AM, Ho B, Ho S, Kovach D, Matlow A, Coates AL. Do in-line respiratory filters protect patients? Comparing bacterial removal efficiency of six filters. Pediatr Pulmonol 2002;34:336–41.
  81. Johns DP, Ingram C, Booth H, Williams TJ, Walters EH. Effect of a microaerosol barrier filter on the measurement of lung function. Chest 1995;107:1045–8.
  82. Fuso L, Accardo D, Bevignani G, Ferrante E, Della Corte A, Pistelli R. Effects of a filter at the mouth on pulmonary function tests. Eur Respir J 1995;8:314–7.
  83. Averame G, Bonavia M, Ferri P, Moretti AM, Fogliani V, Cricelli C, et al. Office spirometry can improve the diagnosis of obstructive airway disease in primary care setting. Respir Med 2009;103:866–72.
  84. Guirguis-Blake JM, Senger CA, Webber EM, Mularski RA, Whitlock EP. Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2016;315:1378–93.
  85. Swart F, Schuurmans MM, Heydenreich JC, Pieper CH, Bolliger CT. Comparison of a new desktop spirometer (Spirospec) with a laboratory spirometer in a respiratory out-patient clinic. Respir Care 2003;48:591–5.
  86. Deschildre A, Beghin L, Salleron J, Iliescu C, Thumerelle C, Santos C, et al. Home telemonitoring (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in children with severe asthma does not reduce exacerbations. Eur Respir J 2012;39:290–6.
  87. Lechtzin N, West N, Allgood S, Wilhelm E, Khan U, Mayer-Hamblett N, et al. Rationale and design of a randomized trial of home electronic symptom and lung function monitoring to detect cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: the early intervention in cystic fibrosis exacerbation (eICE) trial. Contemp Clin Trials 2013;36:460–9.
  88. Wang W, Finkelstein SM, Hertz MI. Automatic event detection in lung transplant recipients based on home monitoring of spirometry and symptoms. Telemed J E Health 2013;19:658–63.
  89. Kugler C, Fuehner T, Dierich M, DeWall C, Haverich A, Simon A, et al. Effect of adherence to home spirometry on bronchiolitis obliterans and graft survival after lung transplantation. Transplantation 2009;88:129–34.
  90. Malmberg LP, Hedman J, Sovijarvi AR. Accuracy and repeatability of a pocket turbine spirometer: comparison with a rolling seal flow-volume spirometer. Clin Physiol 1993;13:89–98.
  91. Ng TP, Tan WC, Hui KP. Ventilatory function measured with the Micro Spirometer: performance evaluation and reference values. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1995;24:403–10.
  92. Brouwer AF, Roorda RJ, Brand PL. Comparison between peak expiratory flow and FEV1 measurements on a home spirometer and on a pneumotachograph in children with asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol 2007;42:813–8.
  93. Rebuck DA, Hanania NA, D'Urzo AD, Chapman KR. The accuracy of a handheld portable spirometer. Chest 1996;109:152–7.
  94. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2017.
  95. Gupta D, Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Maturu VN, Dhooria S, Prasad KT, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Joint ICS/NCCP(I) recommendations. Lung India 2013;30:228–67.
  96. Badgett RG, Tanaka DJ, Hunt DK, Jelley MJ, Feinberg LE, Steiner JF, et al. Can moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease be diagnosed by historical and physical findings alone? Am J Med 1993;94:188–96.
  97. Zwar NA, Marks GB, Hermiz O, Middleton S, Comino EJ, Hasan I, et al. Predictors of accuracy of diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice. Med J Aust 2011;195:168–71.
  98. Fisher AJ, Yadegarfar ME, Collerton J, Small T, Kirkwood TB, Davies K, et al. Respiratory health and disease in a U.K. population-based cohort of 85 year olds: The Newcastle 85+ Study. Thorax 2016;71:255–66.
  99. Agarwal R, Dhooria S, Aggarwal AN, Maturu VN, Sehgal IS, Muthu V, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of bronchial asthma: Joint ICS/NCCP(I) recommendations. Lung India 2015;32:S3–S42.
  100. van Schayck CP. Underdiagnosis of asthma: is the doctor or the patient to blame? The DIMCA project. Thorax 2000;55:562–5.
  101. Mannino DM, McBurnie MA, Tan W, Kocabas A, Anto J, Vollmer WM, et al. Restricted spirometry in the Burden of Lung Disease Study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2012;16:1405–11.
  102. Mannino DM, Holguin F, Pavlin BI, Ferdinands JM. Risk factors for prevalence of and mortality related to restriction on spirometry: findings from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and follow-up. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005;9:613–21.
  103. Aaron SDS. How accurate is spirometry at predicting restrictive pulmonary impairment? Chest 1999;115:869–73.
  104. Suliman YA, Dobrota R, Huscher D, Nguyen-Kim TD, Maurer B, Jordan S, et al. Pulmonary function tests: high rate of false-negative results in the early detection and screening of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Rheumatol 2015;67:3256–61.
  105. Vestbo J, Anderson W, Coxson HO, Crim C, Dawber F, Edwards L, et al. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). Eur Respir J 2008;31:869–73.
  106. Decramer M, Celli B, Kesten S, Lystig T, Mehra S, Tashkin DP, et al. Effect of tiotropium on outcomes in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (UPLIFT): a prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374:1171–8.
  107. Hoogendoorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, Al M, Molken MR. Association between lung function and exacerbation frequency in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2010;5:435–44.
  108. Vestbo J, Edwards LD, Scanlon PD, Yates JC, Agusti A, Bakke P, et al. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1184–92.
  109. Casanova C, Aguirre-Jaime A, de Torres JP, Pinto-Plata V, Baz R, Marin JM, et al. Longitudinal assessment in COPD patients: multidimensional variability and outcomes. Eur Respir J 2014;43:745–53.
  110. Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, Crapo RO, Burgos F, Casaburi R, et al. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respir J 2005;26:948–68.
  111. Killian KJ, Watson R, Otis J, St Amand TA, O'Byrne PM. Symptom perception during acute bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:490–6.
  112. Weiner P, Magadle R, Waizman J, Weiner M, Rabner M, Zamir D. Characteristics of asthma in the elderly. Eur Respir J 1998;12:564–8.
  113. Kitch BT, Paltiel AD, Kuntz KM, Dockery DW, Schouten JP, Weiss ST, et al. A single measure of FEV1 is associated with risk of asthma attacks in long-term follow-up. Chest 2004;126:1875–82.
  114. Osborne ML, Pedula KL, O'Hollaren M, Ettinger KM, Stibolt T, Buist AS, et al. Assessing future need for acute care in adult asthmatics: the Profile of Asthma Risk Study: a prospective health maintenance organization-based study. Chest 2007;132:1151–61.
  115. Stretton R, Poppelwell L, Salih W, Chalmers J, Fardon T. Patterns of spirometry in bronchiectasis patients and relationship to markers of disease severity and hospitalisation. Eur Respir J 2013;42:P2695.
  116. Goeminne PC, Scheers H, Decraene A, Seys S, Dupont LJ. Risk factors for morbidity and death in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of CT diagnosed bronchiectatic patients. Respir Res 2012;13:21.
  117. Onen ZP, Gulbay BE, Sen E, Yildiz OA, Saryal S, Acican T, et al. Analysis of the factors related to mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med 2007;101:1390–7.
  118. Tom F, Simon MF, Megan C, Alison JD, Sara M, James DC. Identifying modifiable risk factors for rapid lung function decline in bronchiectasis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;193:A2878.
  119. Russell AM, Adamali H, Molyneaux PL, Lukey PT, Marshall RP, Renzoni EA, et al. Daily home spirometry: an effective tool for detecting progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;194:989–97.
  120. Collard HR, King TE, Jr, Bartelson BB, Vourlekis JS, Schwarz MI, Brown KK. Changes in clinical and physiologic variables predict survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:538–42.
  121. King TE, Jr, Safrin S, Starko KM, Brown KK, Noble PW, Raghu G, et al. Analyses of efficacy end points in a controlled trial of interferon-gamma1â for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chest 2005;127:171–7.
  122. Karimi-Shah BA, Chowdhury BA. Forced vital capacity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - FDA review of pirfenidone and nintedanib. N Engl J Med 2015;372:1189–91.
  123. Czaplinski A, Yen AA, Appel SH. Forced vital capacity (FVC) as an indicator of survival and disease progression in an ALS clinic population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:390–2.
  124. Fuster RG, Argudo JA, Albarova OG, Sos FH, Lopez SC, Codoner MB, et al. Prognostic value of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2006;29:202–9.
  125. Najafi M, Sheikhvatan M, Mortazavi SH. Do preoperative pulmonary function indices predict morbidity after coronary artery bypass surgery? Ann Card Anaesth 2015;18:293–8.
  126. Manganas H, Lacasse Y, Bourgeois S, Perron J, Dagenais F, Maltais F. Postoperative outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Can Respir J 2007;14:19–24.
  127. Bugge A, Lund MB, Brunborg C, Solberg S, Kongerud J. Survival after surgical resection for lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Thorac Surg 2016;101:2125–31.
  128. National Emphysema Treatment Trial Research Group, Fishman A, Fessler H, Martinez F, McKenna RJ, Jr, Naunheim K, et al. Patients at high risk of death after lung-volume-reduction surgery. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1075–83.
  129. Smetana GW, Lawrence VA, Cornell JE, American College of Physicians. Preoperative pulmonary risk stratification for noncardiothoracic surgery: systematic review for the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:581–95.
  130. Gupta H, Ramanan B, Gupta PK, Fang X, Polich A, Modrykamien A, et al. Impact of COPD on postoperative outcomes: results from a national database. Chest 2013;143:1599–606.
  131. Fisher BW, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA. Predicting pulmonary complications after nonthoracic surgery: a systematic review of blinded studies. Am J Med 2002;112:219–25.
  132. Bapoje SR, Whitaker JF, Schulz T, Chu ES, Albert RK. Preoperative evaluation of the patient with pulmonary disease. Chest 2007;132:1637–45.
  133. Zielinski J, Bednarek M, Gorecka D, Viegi G, Hurd SS, Fukuchi Y, et al. Increasing COPD awareness. Eur Respir J 2006;27:833–52.
  134. Miravitlles M, Soriano JB, Garcia-Rio F, Munoz L, Duran-Tauleria E, Sanchez G, et al. Prevalence of COPD in Spain: impact of undiagnosed COPD on quality of life and daily life activities. Thorax 2009;64:863–8.
  135. Sippel JM, Osborne ML, Bjornson W, Goldberg B, Buist AS. Smoking cessation in primary care clinics. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14:670–6.
  136. Kotz D, Wesseling G, Huibers MJ, van Schayck OC. Efficacy of confronting smokers with airflow limitation for smoking cessation. Eur Respir J 2009;33:754–62.
  137. Parkes G, Greenhalgh T, Griffin M, Dent R. Effect on smoking quit rate of telling patients their lung age: the Step2quit randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;336:598–600.
  138. McClure JB, Ludman EJ, Grothaus L, Pabiniak C, Richards J. Impact of a brief motivational smoking cessation intervention the Get PHIT randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med 2009;37:116–23.
  139. Lin K, Watkins B, Johnson T, Rodriguez JA, Barton MB. Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using spirometry: summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:535.
  140. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hanania NA, Criner G, van der Molen T, et al. Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:179–91.
  141. Kraw M, Tarlo SM. Isocyanate medical surveillance: respiratory referrals from a foam manufacturing plant over a five-year period. Am J Ind Med 1999;35:87–91.
  142. Mackie J. Effective health surveillance for occupational asthma in motor vehicle repair. Occup Med (Lond) 2008;58:551–5.
  143. Gordon SB, Curran AD, Murphy J, Sillitoe C, Lee G, Wiley K, et al. Screening questionnaires for bakers' asthma - are they worth the effort? Occup Med (Lond) 1997;47:361–6.
  144. Nicholson PJ, Cullinan P, Burge PS, Boyle C. Occupational asthma: prevention, identification and management: systematic review and recommendations. London: British Occupational Health Research Foundation; 2010.
  145. Fishwick D, Barber CM, Bradshaw LM, Harris-Roberts J, Francis M, Naylor S, et al. Standards of care for occupational asthma. Thorax 2008;63:240–50.
  146. Tarlo SM, Balmes J, Balkissoon R, Beach J, Beckett W, Bernstein D, et al. Diagnosis and management of workrelated asthma: American College of Chest Physicians consensus statement. Chest 2008;134:1S–41S.
  147. Moreira GL, Gazzotti MR, Manzano BM, Nascimento O, Perez-Padilla R, Menezes AM, et al. Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on three spirometric diagnostic criteria in Sao Paulo, Brazil: a nine-year followup since the PLATINO prevalence study. Sao Paulo Med J 2015;133:245–51.
  148. Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, Gillespie S, Burney P, Mannino DM, et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet 2007;370:741–50.
  149. Pierson DJ, Dick NP, Petty TL. A comparison of spirometric values with subjects in standing and sitting positions. Chest 1976;70:17–20.
  150. Townsend MC. Spirometric forced expiratory volumes measured in the standing versus the sitting posture. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;130:123–4.
  151. Lalloo UG, Becklake MR, Goldsmith CM. Effect of standing versus sitting position on spirometric indices in healthy subjects. Respiration 1991;58:122–5.
  152. De S. Comparison of spirometric values in sitting versus standing position among patients with obstructive lung function. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012;26:86.
  153. Liistro G, Stanescu D, Dooms G, Rodenstein D, Veriter C. Head position modifies upper airway resistance in men. J Appl Physiol 1988;64:1285–8.
  154. Bucca CB, Carossa S, Colagrande P, Brussino L, Chiavassa G, Pera P, et al. Effect of edentulism on spirometric tests. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:1018–20.
  155. Piskin B, Sipahi C, Karakoc O, Atay A, Ciftci F, Tasci C, et al. Effects of complete dentures on respiratory performance: spirometric evaluation. Gerodontology 2014;31:19–24.
  156. D'Angelo E, Prandi E, Milic-Emili J. Dependence of maximal flow-volume curves on time course of preceding inspiration. J Appl Physiol 1993;75:1155–9.
  157. Coates AL, Desmond KJ, Demizio D, Allen PD. Sources of variation in FEV1. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;149:439–43.
  158. Muller-Brandes C, Kramer U, Gappa M, Seitner-Sorge G, Huls A, von Berg A, et al. LUNOKID: can numerical American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society quality criteria replace visual inspection of spirometry? Eur Respir J 2014;43:1347–56.
  159. McKibben JM, McKay RT, Freeman AG, Levin LS, Pinney SM, Alshaikh E. Redefining spirometry hesitating start criteria based on the ratio of extrapolated volume to timed FEVs. Chest 2011;140:164–9.
  160. Hankinson JL, Bang KM. Acceptability and reproducibility criteria of the American Thoracic Society as observed in a sample of the general population. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;143:516–21.
  161. Enright PL, Beck KC, Sherrill DL. Repeatability of spirometry in 18,000 adult patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:235–8.
  162. Kanner RE, Schenker MB, Munoz A, Speizer FE. Spirometry in children: methodology for obtaining optimal results for clinical and epidemiologic studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;127:720–4.
  163. Miller MR, Crapo R, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, et al. General considerations for lung function testing. Eur Respir J 2005;26:153–61.
  164. Brusasco V, Pellegrino R, Rodarte JR. Vital capacities in acute and chronic airway obstruction: dependence on flow and volume histories. Eur Respir J 1997;10:1316–20.
  165. Coates AL, Desmond KJ, Demizio D, Allen P, Beaudry PH. Sources of error in flow-volume curves: effect of expired volume measured at the mouth vs that measured in a body plethysmograph. Chest 1988;94:976–82.
  166. Chhabra SK. Forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, or inspiratory vital capacity: which is the best measure of vital capacity? J Asthma 1998;35:361–5.
  167. Toren K, Olin AC, Lindberg A, Vikgren J, Schioler L, Brandberg J, et al. Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2016;11:927–33.
  168. Glady CA, Aaron SD, Lunau M, Clinch J, Dales RE. A spirometry-based algorithm to direct lung function testing in the pulmonary function laboratory. Chest 2003;123:1939–46.
  169. Fonseca-Guedes CH, Cabral AL, Martins MA. Exerciseinduced bronchospasm in children: comparison of FEV1 and FEF25-75% responses. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;36:49–54.
  170. Quanjer PH, Weiner DJ, Pretto JJ, Brazzale DJ, Boros PW. Measurement of FEF25-75% and FEF75% does not contribute to clinical decision making. Eur Respir J 2014;43:1051–8.
  171. Stanojevic S, Wade A, Stocks J, Hankinson J, Coates AL, Pan H, et al. Reference ranges for spirometry across all ages: a new approach. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008;177:253–60.
  172. Vaz Fragoso CA, Concato J, McAvay G, Van Ness PH, Rochester CL, Yaggi HK, et al. The ratio of FEV1 to FVC as a basis for establishing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;181:446–51.
  173. Miller MR, Quanjer PH, Swanney MP, Ruppel G, Enright PL. Interpreting lung function data using 80% predicted and fixed thresholds misclassifies more than 20% of patients. Chest 2011;139:52–9.
  174. Aaron SD, Dales RE, Cardinal P. How accurate is spirometry at predicting restrictive pulmonary impairment? Chest 1999;115:869–73.
  175. Venkateshiah SB, Ioachimescu OC, McCarthy K, Stoller JK. The utility of spirometry in diagnosing pulmonary restriction. Lung 2008;186:19–25.
  176. Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Behera D, Jindal SK. Use of spirometry in diagnosis of restrictive pulmonary defects. Bull PGIMER 2001;35:79–84.
  177. Scarlata S, Pedone C, Conte ME, Incalzi RA. Accuracy of spirometry in diagnosing pulmonary restriction in elderly people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009;57:2107–11.
  178. Kannel WB, Hubert H, Lew EA. Vital capacity as a predictor of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study. Am Heart J 1983;105:311–5.
  179. Mannino DM, Doherty DE, Sonia Buist A. Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of lung disease and mortality: findings from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Respir Med 2006;100:115–22.
  180. Guerra S, Sherrill DL, Venker C, Ceccato CM, Halonen M, Martinez FD. Morbidity and mortality associated with the restrictive spirometric pattern: a longitudinal study. Thorax 2010;65:499–504.
  181. Hyatt RE, Cowl CT, Bjoraker JA, Scanlon PD. Conditions associated with an abnormal nonspecific pattern of pulmonary function tests. Chest 2009;135:419–24.
  182. Chevalier-Bidaud B, Gillet-Juvin K, Callens E, Chenu R, Graba S, Essalhi M, et al. Non specific pattern of lung function in a respiratory physiology unit: causes and prevalence: results of an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study. BMC Pulm Med 2014;14:148.
  183. Iyer VN, Schroeder DR, Parker KO, Hyatt RE, Scanlon PD. The nonspecific pulmonary function test: longitudinal follow-up and outcomes. Chest 2011;139:878–86.
  184. Silvestri M, Crimi E, Oliva S, Senarega D, Tosca MA, Rossi GA, et al. Pulmonary function and airway
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.