Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a major contributor to global disease burden with a huge socioeconomic impact. Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) strategy update 2023 is a step forward in the direction of evidence-based practice. Key topics like taxonomic classification, ABE grouping, single inhaler triple therapy, correct use of inhalers, etc. would have a positive impact on documentation and prescription practices in COPD management. The tobacco consumption habits are peculiar in India. There is a variation in prevalence estimates across diverse cultures. Non-smoking risk factors are important in Indian subcontinent especially in female and younger populations. We discuss the rationale of latest GOLD strategy update, its implications, and challenges in the management of COPD in Indian context.
2023 GOLD Report - Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease - GOLD Available from: https://goldcopd.org/2023-gold-report-2/.
Chalmers JD, Laska IF, Franssen FME, et al. Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: A European respiratory society guideline. Eur Respir J 2020;55(6):2000351. DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00351-2020.
Global initiative for asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention, 2022. Available from: https://ginasthma.org/.
Daniel R, Aggarwal P, Kalaivani M, et al. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lung India 2021;38(6):506. DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_159_21.
Regan EA, Lynch DA, Curran-Everett D, et al. Clinical and radiologic disease in smokers with normal spirometry. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175(9):1539. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2735.
Mahmood T, Singh RK, Kant S, et al. Prevalence and etiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers. Lung India 2017;34(2):122. DOI: 10.4103/0970-2113.201298.
Gurjar BR, Ravindra K, Nagpure AS. Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications. Atmos Environ 2016;142:475–495. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.030.
Sharma D, Mauzerall D. Analysis of Air Pollution Data in India between 2015 and 2019. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2022;22(2):210204.
Duan P, Wang Y, Lin R, et al. Impact of early life exposures on COPD in adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology 2021;26(12):1131–1151. DOI: 10.1111/resp.14144.
Ghorpade DD, Raghupathy A, Londhe JD, et al. COPD awareness in the urban slums and rural areas around Pune city in India. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2021;31(1):6. DOI: 10.1038/s41533-021-00220-4.
Vanjare N, Chhowala S, Madas S, et al. Use of spirometry among chest physicians and primary care physicians in India. Prim Care Resp Med 2016;26:16036. DOI: 10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.36.
Dhar R, Talwar D, Salvi S, et al. Use of single-inhaler triple therapy in the management of obstructive airway disease: Indian medical experts’ review. ERJ Open Res 2022;8(1):1–17. DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00556-2021.
Bajpai J, Kant S, Bajaj D, et al. Clinical, demographic and radiological profile of smoker COPD versus nonsmoker COPD patients at a tertiary care center in North India. J Fam Med Prim Care 2019;8(7):2364. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_347_19.
Salvi S, Balki A, Krishnamurthy S, et al. Efficacy and safety of single-inhaler triple therapy of glycopyrronium, formoterol and fluticasone in patients with COPD: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial. ERJ Open Res 2021;7(3):1–9. DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00255-2021.
Ganguly T, Selvaraj KL, Guttikunda SK. National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) for Indian cities: Review and outlook of clean air action plans. Atmos Environ X 2020;8:100096. DOI: 10.1016/j.aeaoa.2020.100096.
CPCB asks NCR states pollution board and agencies to take immediate and effective steps to control Air Pollution. Available from: https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1685103.
World COPD Day - Your Lungs for Life: The Forum of International Respiratory Societies - Global Initiative for Asthma - GINA. Available from: https://ginasthma.org/world-copd-day-your-lungs-for-life-the-forum-of-international-respiratory-societies/.
Verma A, Gudi N, Yadav UN, et al. Prevalence of COPD among population above 30 years in India: A systematic review and meta- analysis. J Glob Health 2021;11:04038. DOI: 10.7189/jogh.11.04038.
Salvi S, Kumar GA, Dhaliwal RS, et al. The burden of chronic respiratory diseases and their heterogeneity across the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016. Lancet Glob Heal 2018;6(12):e1363–e1374. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30409-1.