The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 65 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2023 ) > List of Articles


To Study the Effect of Interventions to Reduce the Indoor Air Pollution in Asthmatic Children of Rural India

Raj Kumar, Kamal Singh, Anil Kumar Mavi, Jitendra Kumar Nagar, Manoj Kumar, Parul Mrigpuri, Sonam Spalgais, N Ravishankar

Keywords : Asthma, Cooking fuels, Interventions, Indoor air pollution, Particulate matter

Citation Information : Kumar R, Singh K, Mavi AK, Nagar JK, Kumar M, Mrigpuri P, Spalgais S, Ravishankar N. To Study the Effect of Interventions to Reduce the Indoor Air Pollution in Asthmatic Children of Rural India. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2023; 65 (1):44-51.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0063

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 29-06-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Around 2.6 billion people cook their food using biomass fuel (BMF), kerosene oil, and coal fuel, by which each year, 4 million people die prematurely from household air pollution or by this inefficient cooking practices. So, this study was planned to measure the effect of interventions of cooking fuel (BMF to LPG) to reduce the indoor air pollution in asthmatic children of rural India. Methods: Prospective observational study was done by door-to-door survey, among school-age children. Households of asthmatic children were encouraged to change their cooking fuel to more secure and were followed up for a period of 9 months. The intervention was in the form of a change of cooking fuel (from BMF to LPG) and proper education. The levels of indoor pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) were measured before and after 3 months of follow-up. Result: A total of 56 asthmatic children from 42 households were followed-up for the following 9 months at every 3 months visit. The mean age was 9.27 ± 3.94 years with an equivalent sex ratio. There was at least one smoker in 73.81% of households of asthmatic children. Nearly, 45% of children were living in 101–500 square yard area and 67.86% with the inhabitation of ≤ 3/room. The level of all particulate matter decreased significantly at 3 months (p < 0.05). At 3, 6, 9 months of follow-up, respiratory symptoms and morbidity significantly diminished. Conclusion: The change in cooking fuel to more secure was found to be one of the factors decreasing indoor pollutants and respiratory symptoms/morbidity among asthmatic children in rural areas.

  1. World Health Organization (WHO-2018), World health statistics 2018: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals ISBN 978-92-4-156558-5.
  2. Singh DK, Kumar S, Singh GV, et al. Study on impact of air pollution on asthma among school going children residing in urban Agra. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018; 32(2):65–69. DOI: 10.4103/ijaai.ijaai_14_18.
  3. Weinmayr G, Romeo E, De Sario M, et al. Short-term effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118(4):449–457. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0900844.
  4. Cairncross EK, John J, Zunckel M. A novel air pollution index based on the relative risk of daily mortality associated with short-term exposure to common air pollutants. Atmos Environ 2007; 41(38):8442–8454. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.07.003.
  5. Babin SM, Burkom HS, Holtry RS, et al. Pediatric patient asthma-related emergency department visits and admissions in Washington, DC, from 2001–2004, and associations with air quality, socio-economic status and age group. Environ Health 2007; 6:9. DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-6-9.
  6. Bateson TF, Schwartz J. Children's response to air pollutants. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008; 71(3):238–243. DOI: 10.1080/15287390701598234.
  7. Trasande L, Thurston GD. The role of air pollution in asthma and other pediatric morbidities. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115(4):689–699. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.01.056.
  8. Delfino RJ. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air Toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110 Suppl 4:573–589. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.02110s4573.
  9. Silverman RA, Ito K. Age-related association of fine particles and ozone with severe acute asthma in New York City. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125(2):367–373. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.10.061.
  10. Hye-Kyung Park, Kai-Chung Cheng, Afua O. Tetteh, et al. The effectiveness of air purifier on health outcomes and indoor particles in homes of children with allergic diseases in Fresno, California: A pilot study. Journal of Asthma. 2017;54(4):341–346. DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1218011.
  11. Hu R, Wang S, Aunan K, et al. Personal exposure to PM2.5 in Chinese rural households in the Yangtze River Delta. Indoor Air 2019;00:1–10. DOI: 10.1111/ina.12537.
  12. Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines (GINA-2014): Global strategy for asthma management and prevention.
  13. Pathak U, Kumar R, Suri TM, et al. Impact of biomass fuel exposure from traditional stoves on lung functions in adult women of a rural Indian village. Lung India 2019;36:376–383. DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_477_18.
  14. Balakrishnan K, Sankar S, Parikh J, et al. Daily average exposures to respirable particulate matter from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of Southern India. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110(11):1069–1075. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.021101069.
  15. Nayek S, Padhy PK. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018;25:15925–15933. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1831-7.
  16. Huang Y, Du W, Chen Y, et al. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5, PM1.0 and PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China. Environ Pollut 2017; 231:635–643. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.063.
  17. João Cavaleiro Rufo, Joana Madureira, Inês Paciência, et al. Indoor air quality and atopic sensitization in primary schools: a follow-up study. Porto Biomed. J. 2016;1(4):142–146. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbj.2016.07.003.
  18. Oluwafemi Oluwole, Godson R. Ana, et al. Effect of stove intervention on household air pollution and the respiratory health of women and children in rural Nigeria. Air Qual Atmos Health 2013;6(3):553–561. DOI:10.1007/s11869-013-0196-9.
  19. Gurley ES, Homaira N, Salje H, et al. Indoor exposure to particulate matter and the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections among children: A birth cohort study in urban Bangladesh. Indoor Air 2013; 23(5):379-386. DOI: 10.1111/ina.12038.
  20. Oluwole, Ganiyu O. Arinola, et al. Household biomass fuel use, asthma symptoms severity, and asthma under diagnosis in rural schoolchildren in Nigeria: a cross-sectional observational study Oluwafemi. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017;17(1):3, 1–8. DOI: 10.1186/s12890-016-0352-8.
  21. Dherani M, Pope D, Mascarenhas M, et al. Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuel use and pneumonia risk in children aged under five years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ 2008;86:390–398. DOI: 10.2471/blt.07.044529.
  22. Belanger K, Triche EW. Indoor combustion and asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008;28(3):507–519, vii. DOI: 10.1016/j.iac.2008.03.011.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.