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VOLUME 56 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2014 ) > List of Articles

Guest Editorial

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: New Diagnostics and New Policies

Madhukar Pai

Citation Information : Pai M. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: New Diagnostics and New Policies. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2014; 56 (2):71-73.

DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-56-2-71

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 28-06-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; The Author(s).


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  1. World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Control. WHO Report 2013. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
  2. World Health Organization. Policy update: automated realtime nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children 2013. Available at URL: Accessed on 17 June, 2014.
  3. TB CARE I. International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, 3rd edition. 2014. Available at URL: Accessed on March, 2014.
  4. World Health Organization (Country Office for India). Standards for TB Care in India. Available at URL: Accessed on 17 June, 2014.
  5. Jarosawlski S, Pai M. Why are inaccurate tuberculosis serological tests widely used in the Indian private healthcare sector? A root-cause analysis. J Epidemiol Global Health 2012;2:39-50.
  6. Pai M, Denkinger CM, Kik SV, Rangaka MX, Zwerling A, Oxlade O, et al. Gamma Interferon Release Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2014;27:3-20.
  7. Metcalfe JZ, Everett CK, Steingart KR, Cattamanchi A, Huang L, Hopewell PC, et al. Interferon-gamma release assays for active pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in adults in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2011; 204 (Suppl. 4): S1120-9.
  8. Fan L, Chen Z, Hao XH, Hu ZY, Xiao HP. Interferongamma release assays for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2012;65:456-66.
  9. Steingart K, Schiller I, Horne DJ, Pai M, Boehme C, Dendukuri N. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;1:CD009593.
  10. Denkinger CM, Schumacher SG, Boehme CC, Dendukuri N, Pai M, Steingart KR. Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2014;April 17.[Epub ahead of print].
  11. World Health Organization. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Specimen processing of CSF, lymph nodes, and other tissues for Xpert MTB/RIF. Available at URL: Accessed on 17 June, 2014.
  12. Achanta S, Jaju J, Kumar AM, Nagaraja SB, Shamrao SR, Bandi SK, et al. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India. PLoS One 2013;13:e71119.
  13. Udwadia ZF, Pinto LM, Uplekar MW. Tuberculosis management by private practitioners in Mumbai, India: has anything changed in two decades? PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e12023.
  14. Pai M, Das J. Management of tuberculosis in India: time for a deeper drive into quality. Natl Med J India 2013;26:e1-e4.
  15. Pai M. Promoting affordable and quality tuberculosis testing in India. J Lab Physicians 2013;5:1-4.
  16. Kay M. Private firms form initiative to offer accurate and affordable TB tests. BMJ 2013;346:f2161.
  17. Iyer M. 70 labs in India cut TB test bill by half. Times of India 2014 March 22.
  18. Pai M, Yadav P, Anupindi R. Tuberculosis control needs a complete and patient-centric solution. Lancet Global Health 2014;2:e189-e90.
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