Non rapid eye movement, Rapid eye movement related, Sleep apnea, Sleep architecture, Slow wave sleep
Citation Information :
Patel KM, Patel PD, Prajapati DA, Kamdar DJ. A Study of Sleep Architecture among Sleep Apnea Patients at a Tertiary Care Center: A Retrospective Analysis. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2023; 65 (2):119-126.
Introduction: Sleep is an active biological phenomenon which has subtypes of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep cycle, NREM, and REM stages are affected in patients with sleep disorder breathing.
Objectives: To study sleep architecture among sleep apnea patients and compare all parameters in defined subgroups.
Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of a total of 150 cases (age > 10 years) of sleep apnea was included in our study. The REM-AHI/NREM-AHI ≥ 2 was the criteria stamped as REM-related disorder. Detailed history, anthropometric data, and polysomnography (PSG) parameters were recorded. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration was performed among 141 patients.
Results: There were 90 males and 60 females in whom mean (SD) of age, BMI, neck girth, Epworth score, and mean oximetry were 54.35 (14.07), 33.48 (7.40), 39.05 (5.30), 17.32 (3.60) and 85.45 (8.51) respectively. Mean (SD) of PSG parameters like total sleep time (min), sleep efficiency, N1, N2, N3, REM percentage, AHI total, AHI-NREM, AHI-REM, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were 381.44 (104.47), 85.17 (14.66), 24.94 (16.01), 50.62 (41.42), 20.08 (14.62), 7.40 (9.01), 46.47 (22.25), 46.83 (22.75), 46.82 (25.76) and 43.17 (28.39). Out of 150, 130 (86.67%) were obese and 15 (10%) had REM-related disorders. Mild, moderate, and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was detected in 12 (8%), 22 (14.67%), and 116 (77.33%) respectively.
Conclusion: Sleep apneic is having a lower proportion of slow wave, REM sleep, and a higher percentage of light sleep. Obesity is an obvious contributing factor to disturbed sleep architecture. Female sleep apnea patients have less disturbed sleep architecture although REM-related disorder is more observed in females.
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