The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences

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Volume 64, Number 4, October-December 2022
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EDITORIAL

Pirabu Sakthivel, Vidushi Rathi, Pranav Ish

A to J Risk Factors for Lung Cancer: The Terrible Ten

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:235 - 237]

Keywords: Lung cancer, Pollution, Smoking

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0054  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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Original Article

Elias Mir, Rohit Kumar, Tejas Suri, J. C. Suri

A study of Cardiorespiratory Parameters and Sleep Architecture in Patients with Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea undergoing Adenotonsillectomy

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:238 - 242]

Keywords: Adenotonsillectomy, Cardiorespiratory parameters, Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep architecture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0035  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pediatric population is associated with cardiac, respiratory, metabolic, neurocognitive, and behavioral dysfunctions. Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is the treatment of choice in children who have hypertrophied adenoid and/or palatine tonsils. However, there is paucity of literature on the impact of AT on cardiorespiratory and sleep parameters in these cases. Methods: We did a retrospective study on children who had undergone AT from July 2016 to December 2018 at a tertiary hospital in north India. Only those children, whose polysomnography (PSG) was available both before and after AT were enrolled in this study. • Cardiac parameters: Mean heart rate (MHR) and highest heart rate (HHR), number and duration of arrhythmias, and pulse transit time (PTT) drops. • Respiratory parameters: Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean oxygen saturation (MOS). • Sleep parameters: Time spent in different stages, sleep efficiency (SE), and arousal index (AI) on PSG were compared before and after AT. Results: A total of 56 children had undergone AT for OSA. Also, PSG, both before and after AT, was available in 37 children. After excluding children having undergone other surgeries for OSA and those with comorbidities, 32 children were enrolled. AT led to significant positive change in AHI (from 7.86 ± 7.91 to 2.03 ± 3.10, p = 0.01), RDI (from 16.319 ± 15.64 to 7.38 ± 3.72, p < 0.01), AI (from 22.10 ± 14.93 to 15.90 ± 8.48, p = 0.012), SE (from 91.47 ± 6.31 to 95.866 ± 3.03, p < 0.01), ODI (from 6.7959 ± 5.03 to 1.865 ± 2.09, p < 0.01), MOS (from 95.59 ± 2.19 to 97.28 ± 1.27), HHR (from 141.68 ± 17.93 to 120.93 ± 16.98, p < 0.01), MHR (86.68 ± 12.95 to 80.29 ± 8.81, p = 0.01), and PTT AI (from 36.67 ± 27.72 to 26.93 ± 24.86, p < 0.01). There was no non-sinus wide or narrow complex tachyarrhythmia in any child before or after AT. There was no statistically significant change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration or number and duration of bradycardia episodes in these children (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy improved SE and oxygenation, and decreased the number of obstructive events, arousals, heart rate, and PTT AI during sleep in children with OSA. Some children had residual disease after surgery. Heart rate and PTT can be excellent non-invasive parameters for detecting obstructive events during sleep in children and monitoring the impact of various therapeutic modalities.

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Original Article

Syed Zulkharnain Tousheed, BV MuraliMohan, PH Manjunath, MRK Ravichandra, R Ranganatha, VM Annapandian, H Kumar, KR Hibare, C Sagar, T Gupta, V Raj, TS Dutt, BJ Khan

Effect on the Prevalence of Various Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases due to Paradigm Change in the Guidelines

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:243 - 246]

Keywords: Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, Interstitial lung disease, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Interstitial pneumonitis, Multidisciplinary team

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0030  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) have gone through various changes in nomenclature and classification since they were first described in 1868. Increasing knowledge about their etiopathogenesis has since led to several reclassifications and changes in the nomenclature. This has had a major impact on the prevalence of each interstitial lung disease (ILD) reported by the different registries worldwide. In this study, we attempted to describe the distribution of the different DPLDs in our population and reported changes in prevalence due to changing diagnostic criteria for the disease. Materials and methods: We analyzed retrospective data of 434 patients. For the initial 75 patients, ATS/ERS guidelines published in 2002 were followed in the diagnosis of the ILD (group I). In the later part of the study (359 patients), the diagnosis was based on the computed tomography (CT) patterns defined by ATS/ERS/JPS/ALAT statement on diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and updated 2013 ATS/ERS guidelines (group II). Results: Of the 75 patients in group I, IPF was the most common diagnosis (52%) made at that time, followed by sarcoidosis and connective tissue-related ILD (CTD-ILD) with 12% each. Group II had 359 patients, with IPF again being the most commonly diagnosed ILD with 21.3%. This was followed by CTD-ILD (18.6%), sarcoid (14.7%), and idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (iNSIP; 13.3%). The changing guidelines have an impact on reporting of different DPLD by our multidisciplinary teamover a period of time. Though IPF was the most commonest DPLD reported among both the groups, the diagnosis of IPF had fallen by more than half in the second group. It was paralleled by an increase in the diagnosis of iNSIP and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. These reported changes in the prevalence of DPLDs may reflect the better-defined criteria in the latest guidelines and a better understanding of the fibrotic ILDs other than IPF by the multidisciplinary team. Conclusions: The frequency of diagnosis of the different DPLDs has changed, following the publication of several guidelines in the last decade. It has recognized newer entities with greater clarity, such as idiopathic NSIP and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

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Original Article

Seema Singh, Sunita Singh, Surya Kant, Santosh Kumar, S K Verma

Potential Impact of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients and its Relation to Serum Levels of Erythropoietin

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:247 - 252]

Keywords: Anemia, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Erythropoietin, Iron deficiency, Renal failure

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0039  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia in patients of COPD and to check the hemoglobin level in all patients with COPD and to assess the quality of life (QOL) by administering the questionnaire in anemic COPD patients and comparing it with nonanemic COPD patients. Methods: We examined the subjects and administered a questionnaire based on dyspnea score to assess the impact of anemia on quality of life in patients of COPD. A total of 250 COPD patients were enrolled in the study, in that 62 patients were anemic and 188 patients were nonanemic in COPD patients. Results: The proportion of patients of nonanemic was found to be higher as compared with anemia having modified medical research council (mMRC) grade I (35.71% vs 20.00%), grade II (40.48% vs 26.67%), and grade IV (11.90% vs 6.67%), while the proportion of patients of anemia was found to be higher than that of nonanemic having mMRC grade III (46.67% vs 11.90%). Difference in mMRC grade of patients of anemia and nonanemic was found to be statistically highly significant. Out of 250 patients of COPD, hemoglobin levels of 62 (26.32%) were found to be below normal levels and were diagnosed as anemic and classified as anemia in the present study, while hemoglobin levels of the rest 188 (73.68%) patients were found to be normal and were classified as nonanemic. Prevalence of anemia in COPD = 24.87%. Conclusion: Anemia occurs frequently in patients of COPD and is associated with poor quality of life and increased morbidity in the form of number of exacerbations and hospital admissions. Correcting anemia in these patients may improve their clinical outcomes.

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Original Article

Gurusamipalayam Sivamani Kandavel, Bhagyashri Patil, Suresh Gautam, Gajanan S Gaude, Jyothi Hattiholi, Kiran Kumar Pujar

Effect of Hyperglycemia on the Duration of Hospital Stay and Rate of Mortality in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Acute Exacerbation: A 1-year Hospital-based Observational Study

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:253 - 257]

Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in acute exacerbation, Duration of hospital stay, Duration of intensive care unit stay hyperglycemia, Random blood sugar, Rate of mortality

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0032  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not only a respiratory disease but is also a systemic disease associated with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, osteoporosis, etc. Diabetes being one of the comorbidities, COPD is thought to be a causative factor for developing insulin resistance. Similarly, poor glycemic control is associated with worsened COPD outcomes. Thus, this study has been taken up to analyze the effect of hyperglycemia on the duration of hospital stay and rate of mortality, and other outcomes in patients with COPD with exacerbation. Methods: It was an observational study conducted for 1 year in KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital & Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. A total of 84 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the mean random blood sugar (RBS) levels. Group I had 40 patients with mean RBS <250 mg/dL and group II had 44 patients with mean RBS ≥250 mg/dL. Outcomes and variables of the patients with COPD were compared between both groups. Results: Patients in group II had poor outcomes compared to group I. The mean duration of hospital stays in groups I and group II were 5.43 and 7.34, respectively, with a significant p < 0.0001. The mean duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 3.33 and 4.47 in groups I and II, respectively, which was statistically significant. The rate of mortality in groups I and II was 5.00 and 11.36%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with hyperglycemia had an increased duration of hospital stay and rate of mortality. Optimal glycemic control plays a significant role in patients with COPD in reducing the severity of exacerbation and mortality.

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Original Article

Randeep Singh, Naveed Nazir Shah, Khursheed Ahmad Dar, Syed Suraiya Farooq, Mohammad Yousoof Dar

Medical Thoracoscopy: Diagnostic Role in the Management of Undiagnosed Pleural Effusions and its Complications

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:258 - 262]

Keywords: Medical thoracoscopy, Pleuroscopy, Undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0043  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Cases of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions are common in clinical practice and pose a diagnostic challenge for pulmonologists. Medical thoracoscopy allows both direct visualizations of pleural space for diagnostic evaluation and chemical pleurodesis for therapeutic purposes. Objectives: This study investigated the diagnostic role of medical thoracoscopy in the cases of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions and complications of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. Patients and methods: Between December 2016 and August 2019, 195 patients of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions underwent medical thoracoscopy in our institute. Pleural biopsies were taken and sent for histopathological and microbiological examination. Results: The diagnostic yield of medical thoracoscopy in this study was 89.7%. Definite diagnosis was achieved in 175 out of 195 patients of the study population and only 20 (10.3%) patients were failed to be diagnosed by medical thoracoscopy. Histopathological results of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy among the study population revealed tubercular pleuritis in 31.79% (62 patients), metastatic adenocarcinoma in 23.07% (45 patients), malignant mesothelioma in 18.46% (36 patients), parapneumonic effusions in 6.66% (13 patients), metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in 5.64% (11 patients), small cell carcinoma in 3.07% (6 patients), malignant lymphoma in 0.51% (1 patient), and rheumatoid pleuritis in 0.51% (1 patient). Only 19.4% (38 patients) had minor complications like pain, minor bleeding, subcutaneous emphysema, and re-expansion pulmonary edema. Conclusion: Thoracoscopy is a safe, well-tolerated procedure with minimal risk allowing the accurate diagnosis of undiagnosed pleural effusion. Besides determining the underlying cause, it also provides unique therapeutic approaches like pleurodesis to patients with malignant pleural effusions.

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Original Article

KP Suraj, E Jyothi, Priya Jayarajan, Biju George

Cyclophosphamide Pulse Therapy in the Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: An Observational Study

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:263 - 268]

Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, Interstitial lung disease, Scleroderma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0047  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Scleroderma is a multisystem autoimmune connective tissue disease with approximately 90% of patients having lung involvement. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma. There is no effective treatment once there is lung involvement in the form of fibrosis. Study setting: Conducted in a tertiary care center between January 2017 and December 2019. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous cyclophosphamide in patients with scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Study population: Symptomatic patient with scleroderma with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-proven non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP)-pattern ILD. Methodology: Patients received 12 cycles of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 4 weeks. Patients were followed up for 1 year after treatment completion. A six-minute walk test (6MWT) and spirometry were done at baseline and then every 6 months up to 2 years. Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was done at baseline and then yearly for up to 2 years. Results: A total of 38 patients completed the study. The majority of patients had diffuse cutaneous type of systemic sclerosis. Throughout the study period, there was a gradual worsening of dyspnea as measured by the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) improved with 1 year of treatment, but later steadily decreased during follow-up. Similarly, DLCO also improved during 1-year treatment, but the improvement was not sustained during follow-up. There was a statistically significant improvement in 6MWD at the end of 6 months. This was followed by a gradual fall in 6MWD during follow-up. The only adverse event noted was persistent leukopenia in one patient. Conclusion: Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy in patients with scleroderma-associated ILD is associated with stabilization of pulmonary function during the treatment period, but not maintained during follow-up.

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CASE REPORT

Vishnu Gopalakrishnan, Akhilesh Kunoor, Jyothi Sreekanth, Malini Eapen, KR Balasubramoniam

Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Mimicking Interstitial Lung Disease

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:269 - 271]

Keywords: Interstitial lung disease, Lung biopsy, Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis, Pulmonary arterial hypertension

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0029  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disease usually associated with pulmonary hypertension which is classified in group I as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is commonly presented as effort intolerance and hypoxia. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis can present with ground-glass opacity on chest radiograph which can mimic interstitial lung disease. We need to consider PCH also in the differential diagnosis of interstitial shadows with these clinical presentations and should consider diagnostic evaluation for the same in case of unsatisfactory clinic-radiological response to treatment. We describe a case presented and treated as interstitial lung disease, which turned out to be PCH on lung biopsy. Interestingly, the case was not associated with any evidence of PAH.

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CASE REPORT

Loveleen Mangla, Chayan Chakrabarty, Deepak Talwar

T-cell Lymphoma: A Rare Malignancy Masquerading as Tuberculosis

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:272 - 276]

Keywords: T-cell lymphoma, Tuberculosis, Pleural effusion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0034  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a rare and aggressive variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We present a case of T-LBL presenting as a right-side pleural effusion in a middle-aged person and biochemical characteristics similar to tuberculosis [lymphocytic exudative with high adenosine deaminase (ADA)] that confuses the diagnosis and delays the treatment. Thoracoscopy was suggestive of multiple varying size nodular lesions which may be characteristic of the disease. This case also emphasizes that all lymphocytic exudative effusions with elevated ADA are not tuberculosis, especially in middle-aged and elderly populations. Before labeling a diagnosis of tubercular pleural effusions, all other possible diagnoses should be ruled out.

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CASE REPORT

Pankaj Gupta, Abhijeet Singh, Indermohan Chugh, Pratik Patil, Promila Pankaj

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Female with Multisystem Involvement

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:11] [Pages No:277 - 287]

Keywords: Adult, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Perianal, Vulva

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0036  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) also known as histiocytosis X, is a rare systemic disorder arising from the clonal proliferation of myeloid dendritic cells (histiocytes) with a tendency to involve single or multiple organ systems with variable clinical course and prognosis. Clinical presentation usually depends on the site of involvement. The organs commonly affected in adults by order of decreasing frequency include lungs, bone, skin, pituitary glands, lymph nodes, and the liver. Vulval and perianal involvement is extremely rare in adults. We describe the case of a 31-year-old non-smoker adult female with multisystemic LCH involving the vulva, perianal region, and lung. Probable involvement of other sites with LCH included mandibular bone, pituitary gland, skin, lymph nodes, liver, thyroid, and colon. She is undergoing systemic chemotherapy and has completed two cycles of cytarabine and steroids without any complications. Treatment is not standardized due to the very less incidence of the disease and inadequate knowledge regarding its pathophysiology. Langerhans cell histiocytosis remains a major concern for treating physicians because of its rarity with many faces and requires careful consideration for management.

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CASE REPORT

Abhishek Gupta, Ketaki Utpat, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M. Joshi

Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Continued Relevance of Closed Needle Pleural Biopsy

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:288 - 291]

Keywords: Malignant pleural effusion, Mesothelioma, Metastatic adenocarcinoma, Percutaneous closed needle pleural biopsy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0037  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Thoracocentesis and pleural biopsy are recommended for the evaluation of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. There are multiple etiologies associated with them, out of which malignancy is one of them. Hence, the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) has been proposed in recent perspectives. We aimed to find the profile of MPE, efficacy of percutaneous closed needle pleural biopsy (PCNPB) in diagnosing MPE, overall yield, and complication rate to evaluate the continued relevance of this traditional procedure. Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on consecutive consenting patients at the Department of Pulmonary Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from July 2016 to May 2018. The diagnosis was based on cytobiochemical, microbiological, and histopathological results along with clinical history. Data were analyzed with respect to pleural fluid assessment in terms of cytobiochemical and microbiological evaluation; while pleural biopsy was studied histopathologically. Results: Two hundred and fifty patients with exudative pleural effusion were enrolled. Tuberculosis (218, 87.2%) was the most common etiology followed by malignancy (22, 8.8%). The most common presenting complaint was chest pain (100%) followed by dyspnea (90.47%). Metastatic adenocarcinoma was found in 81.81% followed by mesothelioma in 18.18%. The sensitivity of pleural biopsy for malignancy was found to be 63.63% (p < 0.003, odds ratio [OR]: 2.01), and those fulfilling Leung's criteria, sensitivity was found to be 90.90% (p < 0.001, OR: 3.67). The sensitivity of pleural fluid for malignancy was 18.18% (p < 0.05, OR: 1.51). All cases of mesothelioma have asbestos exposure. The complication in the form of mild post-pleural biopsy pain was encountered in 10%, which required mild analgesics. Other complications in the form of self-resolving pneumothorax were seen in 6%, which increased hospital stay to 2–3 days and self-resolving hematoma (3%). Conclusion: In this modern era, PCNPB still holds high sensitivity, efficacy rate, and relevance for diagnosing MPE with less complication rate, less hospital stay, and can be done on a daycare basis. Also, we have very less research and paperwork regarding this topic.

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CASE REPORT

Onkar K Jha, Sapna Yadav, Mrinal Sircar, Noopur Gupta

Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscopy in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure on Noninvasive Ventilation: Report of Two Cases

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:292 - 296]

Keywords: Bronchoscopy, Endobronchial ultrasound, EBUS–transbronchial needle aspiration, Fiberoptic bronchoscopy, Noninvasive ventilation, Respiratory failure

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0041  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) has simplified the direct examination of the lungs and is widely used for diagnosis and therapy. Fiberoptic bronchoscopes occupy a significant proportion of cross-section area of central airways, which can affect lung mechanics and gas exchanges that may lead to desaturation and cardiac arrhythmia. This makes bronchoscopy in critically ill patients with respiratory failure even more challenging. Use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) may help to avoid use of invasive mechanical ventilation in selected patients with acute respiratory failure. It has been shown to be useful in hypoxemic patients to facilitate bronchoscopic examination for bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, endobronchial biopsy (EBB), and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Noninvasive mechanical ventilation has also been used to facilitate other endoscopic procedures including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in hypoxemic patients. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) bronchoscope, having a wider diameter than a conventional bronchoscope, may have a more pronounced effect on lung mechanics and gas exchanges, and its use in patients on NIV has not been reported. Contraindications of EBUS are mostly relative and similar to FOB. There are several studies suggesting the safety of NIV-supported FOB in hypoxemic patients. We describe our experience of the first two EBUS bronchoscopies and transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) was done in hypoxemic patients with NIV support.

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CASE REPORT

Aparna Chatterjee, Mridul Kumar Sarma, Subhra Mitra

“Air Bubble Sign” and Fibreoptic Bronchoscopy in Complicated Pulmonary Hydatid Cysts: Steps in the Right Direction

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:297 - 299]

Keywords: Air bubble sign, Bronchoscopy, Pulmonary hydatid cyst

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0044  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Intact pulmonary hydatid cysts are often discovered incidentally on chest X-rays (CXRs) as rounded opaque lesions with smooth borders. Cyst rupture and infection (complicated hydatid cyst) often change the radiologic appearance delaying diagnosis. Air bubble sign on computed tomography is recognized as a sign of high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of complicated hydatid cysts when compared to other classical radiologic signs. Bronchoscopy is not a preferred investigation in patients with intact hydatid cysts but may have a major role in patients with complicated hydatid cysts with atypical presentation. In the present case series, we attempt to highlight the importance of the “air bubble sign” and the identification of a whitish membrane at bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of complicated hydatid cysts.

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CASE REPORT

Mandeep K Sodhi, Deepak Aggarwal, Kashish Dutta, Varinder Saini

Combined Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis and Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A Rare Co-occurrence

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:300 - 302]

Keywords: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Asthma, Filaria, Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0045  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) are common lung diseases presenting with peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although these have been widely reported both from India and outside, simultaneous co-occurrence of the two diseases has not been reported so far. We hereby present a case of an elderly male, a known case of asthma, who was diagnosed to have concurrent ABPA and TPE. Partial clinical response as well as the persistence of eosinophilia after ABPA treatment raised the suspicion that subsequently led to the diagnosis of TPE. The concurrent treatment of both conditions led to satisfactory clinical and serological improvement.

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CASE REPORT

S. Mitra, Anjan Kumar Das, Ashis Majumdar, Debsubhra Mondal

Two Unusual Presentations of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia: Cutaneous Metastasis and a Large Solitary Lung Lesion

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:303 - 306]

Keywords: Cutaneous metastasis, Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0048  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Gestational trophoblastic tumors, an uncommon group of pregnancy-related neoplasms, should be considered in any premenopausal patient presenting with metastatic disease from an unknown primary. A raised hCG and exclusion of pregnancy are often the only requirement in this situation. Although a potentially curable condition, a late diagnosis and the extent of the metastatic disease often determine the prognosis. Here we describe two young women with metastatic GTN, the first presenting with a very unusual finger metastasis and the second with a rare large solitary lung lesion with brain metastasis.

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CASE REPORT

Vikas Deep Goyal, Gaurav Misra, Subhra Kumari, Sudipta Bera

Huge Anterior Mediastinal Teratoma Leading to Orthopnea in a Young Patient

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:307 - 310]

Keywords: Anterior mediastinum, Mature cystic teratoma, Orthopnea, Surgical management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0046  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The anterior mediastinal cysts and masses (AMCM) can be of varied origin and presentation. Although the space in the mediastinum is limited the cysts and masses can grow to a large size before the presentation. They displace the adjacent structures and then can grow into the pleural cavities thereby acquiring a large size. We share our experience of a case of a huge anterior mediastinal cystic mass in a young female who had a characteristic presentation of sudden onset breathlessness in the supine position and immediate relief in the sitting position. The patient recovered well after surgical treatment.

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

M Dharani, Ketaki Utpat, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna Joshi, Ramesh N Bharmal

Clinical Profile of Connective Tissue Disease- related Interstitial Lung Diseases at a Tertiary Care Center in Western India

[Year:2022] [Month:October-December] [Volume:64] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:311 - 313]

Keywords: Connective tissue disease, Interstitial lung disease, Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0031  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Connective tissue disorders (CTDs) are one of the common causes of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). This prospective observational study included around 51 patients of CTD-ILDs, and their demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory profiles were studied. The most common type of CTD-ILD in our study is rheumatoid arthritis-related ILD. On high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was the most common pattern seen in 30 patients (59%), followed by usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) seen in 20 patients (39%). Even though CTD-ILDs are similar to other idiopathic ILDs in clinical and radiological presentation, patients with CTDs have to be evaluated clinically and radiologically for early diagnosis. Early treatment initiation and pulmonary rehabilitation help in delaying the progression of disease. Among all ILDs, CTD-ILDs are associated with better prognosis and survival.

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