Background. A case-controlled study was undertaken to find out the possible relationship of biomass fuel and pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods. Ninety-five non-smoking females with sputum positive tuberculosis (TB) and 109 healthy controls were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain detailed information on type of fuel used in homes, duration of cooking, passive smoking, location of kitchen, socio-economic status, adequacy of ventilation, number of people per room and respiratory symptoms occurring during cooking. Odds ratio (OR) was ascertained by logistic regression analysis.
Results. The cases were from a low socio-economic status and the kitchens used by them were inadequately ventilated. Controls had less smoke accumulation in the rooms while cooking and cases had associated respiratory symptoms more often. Logistic regression analysis revealed that TB was significantly influenced by the location of the kitchen (OR 0.201, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.51) and the presence of respiratory symptoms while cooking (OR 10.70, 95% CI 2.90- 39.56). The odds of having TB did not differ significantly among various fuel types either on univariate (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.45- 2.22) or multivariate analysis (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.22-1.63).
Conclusions. No association was found between type of fuel used and TB. However, low socio-economic status, smoky rooms, location of the kitchen, ventilation and associated respiratory symptoms during cooking are likely to be important contributors.
Background. Asthma is a major public health problem worldwide. However, there is limited data on asthma prevalence among school children in Shimla. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asthma in Shimla city and also to examine the different factors influencing its occurrence.
Methods. This was a questionnaire-based study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood [ISAAC] protocol) carried out in four randomly selected schools in the city of Shimla. The questionnaire was pre-tested in 50 school children. The age group included in the study was 6-13 years. The questionnaire was distributed to all the children (n=1136). A response rate of 89.5% was achieved. The socio-economic status was determined on the basis of monthly income (cumulative square root value method). The ISAAC questionnaire was given standard scores. Various factors influencing the prevalence of asthma, such as socio-economic status, history of asthma and other allergic disorders in the family, type of cooking fuel used, history of active and passive smoking were elucidated from the history.
Results. Overall prevalence of asthma in our study was found to be 2.3 percent. Boys had a higher prevalence (3.1%) than girls (1.4%). We found a significant association between asthma prevalence and family history of asthma and other atopic manifestations. There was no significant association of socio-economic factors and exposure to smoking with prevalence of asthma.
Conclusion. In the present study, the prevalence of bronchial asthma in school children in the age group of 6-13 years is 2.3 percent.
S. Naveen Kumar,
I. Chiranjeevi Manohar
How to cite this article:
Mohan A, Kumar SN, Rao M, Bollineni S, Manohar IC. Acute Accidental Exposure to Chlorine Gas: Clinical Presentation, Pulmonary Functions and Outcomes. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2010; 52 (3):149-152.
Background. To study the clinical presentation, pulmonary functions and outcomes in subjects who were accidentally exposed to chlorine gas.
Methods. Prospective observational study of 64 patients who sustained acute accidental exposure to chlorine gas during a leak in the chlorination system of the public bathing pool of a temple.
Results. The major presenting symptoms and signs included acute dyspnoea (100%), chest discomfort (100%), cough (97%), eye irritation (88%), giddiness (72%), vomiting (46%), and heaviness in the head (44%); tachycardia (100%), tachypnoea (96%) and polyphonic wheezing (28%). All patients were managed in the emergency room with humidified oxygen inhalation and beta-2 agonist nebulisation and 52 were discharged within six hours. Twelve patients were severely affected and required hospitalisation; three of them were admitted into the intensive care unit. Three patients developed pulmonary oedema six to eight hours following admission. Pulmonary function testing (n=12) at presentation revealed obstructive defect in eight and mixed obstructive-cum-restrictive defect in four patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.1±2.1 days. None of the patients died. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) was observed in three of the 12 hospitalised patients, who complained of manifested persistent cough that lasted for three months period following discharge. Serial pulmonary functions recovered to normal range by the end of the six months in all patients and remained so at one-year follow-up.
Conclusion. Acute exposure to chlorine gas is an uncommon, but important public health hazard and can cause RADS, acute lung injury and pulmonary function abnormalities, which are reversible on prompt and appropriate management.
Corticosteroids are often used as an adjunct in the treatment of various forms of tuberculosis (TB) and for the prevention of complications, such as constrictive pericarditis, hydrocephalus, focal neurological deficits, pleural adhesions, and intestinal strictures. Notwithstanding, they have been proven in clinical trials to improve the following outcomes only — death or disability in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative patients with tubercular meningitis and tubercular pericarditis. Despite a lack of specific evidence for efficacy in HIV co-infected patients with tubercular meningitis or pericarditis, corticosteroids are generally recommended in them as well. Corticosteroids significantly decrease the risk of pleural thickening in patients with tubercular pleural effusion; the clinical significance of this finding, however, is unclear. Recently, it has been demonstrated that use of corticosteroids improve the morbidity in HIV co-infected patients with paradoxical TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, evidence favouring the use of corticosteroids in other clinical situations is sparse or lacking. Likewise, the biological mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect in TB meningitis and pericarditis remain poorly understood.
In recent years successful bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs) by locating its site and then blocking the leaking segment with any of the several agents available has gained recognition. It is now considered as an alternate mode of management of BPF. Here we present a case of non-resolving pneumothorax that was managed successfully using bronchoscopic glue (cyanoacrylate glue) instillation.
A case of unilateral re-expansion pulmonary oedema in a chronic pneumothorax is presented. The patient had a longstanding left-sided pneumothorax. Intercostal drainage tube was inserted following which the patient developed severe hypotension and respiratory failure. Chest radiograph (postero-anterior view) showed partial lung expansion with unilateral pulmonary oedema. The patient responded to the standard management of pulmonary oedema and the lung was fully re-expanded.
Unmil B. Shah,
Primary pleuro-pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS) is a rare tumour and poses a diagnostic challenge particularly when unusual histological features are present. We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sero-positive male who was referred to us with complaints of cough, breathlessness and left-sided chest pain for the past two months. The PPSS can be confirmed on tru-cut biopsy.