The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences

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2012 | January-March | Volume 54 | Issue 1

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EDITORIAL

Mridula Bose

Decoding Population Genetics: Impact on Tuberculosis Control and Treatment

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:5 - 7]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-5  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

246

Original Article

Ritu Kulshrestha, B.K. Menon, Raj Kumar, V.K. Vijayan

Role of a Pattern-based Approach in Interpretation of Transbronchoscopic Lung Biopsy and Its Clinical Implications

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:9 - 17]

Keywords: TBLB, Diffuse lung disease, Histopathological patterns

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-9  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is commonly performed for confirming the tissue diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs). There is an urgent need to establish guidelines for interpretation of TBLB in order to improve its diagnostic utility. Methods. We retrospectively studied 916 consecutive patients (494 males; mean age 49 years) who underwent TBLB over a 5-year period (July 2005 to July 2010) at Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute. Results. In 615 (67.1%) procedures, material obtained during TBLB was adequate for histopathology interpretation. Pathological features evaluated in each case were: alveolar architecture, inflammatory infiltrate, interstitial fibrosis, atypical cells, pigment deposition, honey-comb change and fibroblast foci. The cases were categorised on the basis of histopathology into six patterns: (1) adequate biopsy without a specific diagnostic abnormality (n=137, 22.3%); (2) acute pneumonitis (n=29, 4.7%); (3) neoplasia (n=109, 17.7%); (4) chronic interstitial inflammation with or without fibrosis (n=138, 22.4%); (5) granulomatous inflammation, (n=186, 30.2%); and (6) other specific causes (n=16, 2.6%). Definitive diagnosis could be made after correlation of TBLB histopathology with clinical and radiological features in 55.3% cases. Conclusions. TBLB appears to be an important diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of DPLDs. The use of a pattern-based approach to TBLB adds to its diagnostic yield and can be helpful in cases where open lung biopsy is not available.

269

Original Article

Gulfidan Cakmak, Zuhal Aydan Saglam, Tayyibe Saler, Mustafa Yenigun, Levent Umit Temiz

Socio-economic Status of Smokers Presenting to the Outpatient Service: Does Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Make A Difference?

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:19 - 22]

Keywords: Socio-economic status, COPD, Demographic characteristic, Smoker, Education

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-19  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background. Sparse published data are available on the impact of social and personal factors leading to tobacco smoking. Identification of social and economic motives underlying smoking can facilitate the efforts towards control of tobacco smoking. Methods. A questionnaire was administered to 966 smokers attending the Chest Diseases Out-patient clinic at the Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul to collect demographic data from the participants. In all of them spirometry was performed. Results. The participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) were less benefiting from social security system and they were less educated. Patients with COl'I) were generally living in cities. In this group the number of divorced patients were more than the other group. Conclusions. TI1ere are many factors causing individuals to initiate smoking. By eliminating these factors, mortality and morbidity rates caused by smoking will dedine dramatically. This shldy aims to draw attention on personal and social factors for smoking.

330

Original Article

C. Nagaraja, B.L. Shashibhushan, Mohamed Asif, PH Manjunath, C Sagar

Pattern of Drug-resistance and Treatment Outcome in Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:23 - 26]

Keywords: MDR-TB, Drug resistance, Treatment outcome

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-23  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and Objectives. To study the pattern of drug-resistance and treatment outcomes among patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-PTB). Methods. A prospective study was conducted at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Between January 2005 and December 2008, 224 confirmed MDR-PTB cases were studied for various drug-resistance patterns, and their treatment outcomes were analysed until November 2010. Sputum culture and drug sensitivity tests (DST) were carried out at National Tuberculosis Institute, Bengaluru; DST was done for all first-line drugs except pyrazinamide. Results. Of the 224 MDR-PTB patients, 146 (65.2%) were resistant to all first-line drugs, 39 (17.4%) to isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin; 19 (8.5%) to isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol; and 20 (8.9%) to isoniazid and rifampicin. Among them, 145 (64.7%) patients were cured, 5 (2.2%) had treatment-failure, 10 (4.4%) died, and 64 (28.5%) defaulted. Among 145 cured cases, 100 (69%) were resistant to all first-line drugs, 23 (16%) to isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin, 11(8%) to isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol, and 11(8%) to isoniazid and rifampicin. Conclusions. The most common pattern observed in this study was resistance to all four first-line drugs followed by resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin. Patients resistant to all first-line drugs had early sputum culture conversion and better cure rate as compared to other resistance patterns. [Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2012;54:23-26]

330

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sunil Kumar Chhabra, Mansi Gupta

Exhaled Breath Condensate Analysis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:11] [Pages No:27 - 37]

Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Exhaled breath condensate, Oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane, Hydrogen peroxide

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-27  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The increasing focus on airway inflammation in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has led to development and evolution of tools to measure it. Direct assessment of airway inflammation requires invasive procedures, and hence, has obvious limitations. Non-invasive methods to sample airway secretions and fluids offer exciting prospects. Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is rapidly emerging as a novel non-invasive approach for sampling airway epithelial lining fluid and offers a convenient tool to provide biomarkers of inflammation. It has definite advantages that make it an attractive and a feasible option. It is a source of mediators and molecules that are the causes or consequences of the inflammatory process. Measurement of such markers is increasingly being explored for studying airway inflammation qualitatively and quantitatively in research studies and for potential clinical applications. These biomarkers also have the potential to develop into powerful research tools in COPD for identifying various pathways of pathogenesis of COPD that may ultimately provide specific targets for therapeutic intervention. The EBC analysis is still an evolving noninvasive method for monitoring of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. The limited number of studies available on EBC analysis in COPD have provided useful information although definite clinical uses are yet to be defined. Evolving technologies of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics may provide deeper and newer insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of COPD

323

Radiology Forum

Jyotsna M. Joshi

Tracheal Diverticulum

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:39 - 40]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-39  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

256

CASE REPORT

M. Garg, Pratibha Gogia, P. Manoria, R. Goyal

Bronchoscopic Management of Benign Bronchial Stenosis by Electrocautery and Balloon Dilatation

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:41 - 43]

Keywords: Flexible bronchoscope, Benign bronchial stenosis, Electrocautrey, Balloon dilatation

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-41  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Benign bronchial stenosis is managed by surgical or bronchoscopic methods. Although surgical approach is definitive, it is technically demanding and is costlier than bronchoscopic treatment. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old female patient with symptomatic benign bronchial stenosis of the left main bronchus. The stenosis was dilated successfully through a fibreoptic bronchoscope by electrocautery followed by balloon bronchoplasty and application of mitomycin-C. On follow up, there was no evidence of re-stenosis.

276

CASE REPORT

Manohar Lal Gupta, Chand Bhandari, Jyotsna Sinha

Tracheobronchial Compression by Right-sided Aortic Arch in a Middle Aged Male

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:45 - 47]

Keywords: Tracheomalacia, Exertional dyspnoea, Variable intrathoracic airway obstruction, Right side aortic arch

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-45  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Exertional dyspnoea is a common symptom among middle-aged population. Diagnostic evaluation of such patients is often challenging and confusing. We report a patient presenting with exertional dyspnoea and an obstructive ventilatory defect on spirometry that was refractory to bronchodilator therapy. Careful review of the chest radiograph and spirometry pointed towards variable intra-thoracic airways obstruction as a cause of dyspnoea. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the thorax and bronchoscopy established the diagnosis of a right-sided aortic arch resulting in tracheobronchial compression and tracheomalacia.

260

CASE REPORT

Rajaram Burrah, K.V. Veerendra, V. Deshmane, C Rama Rao, S. Althaf, S. Pingali, A.D. Shah, Y. Srinivasalu

Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Pleura

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:49 - 52]

Keywords: Pleural, Localised mesothelioma, Solitary fibrous tumour

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-49  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura is a rare primary pleural neoplasm. These tumours are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected. Majority of these neoplasms are benign and surgical excision provides excellent results. With the widespread use of imaging and better diagnostic criteria, this tumour is likely to be detected more frequently. We encountered a patient with a giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura, review the literature and present the details of management of this patient.

233

CASE REPORT

S. Mitra, S. Roy Tapadar, D. Banerjee, S. Bhattacharjee, Sunanda Dey, S. Kundu

Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium massiliense

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:53 - 57]

Keywords: Mycobacterium massiliense, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Rapidly growing mycobacteria

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-53  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

We report a case of a patient suffering from multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-PTB) who later developed an invasive infection of the respiratory tract with a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), recently identified as Mycobacterium massiliense, closely related to M. abscessus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of M. massiliense infection being reported from India.

296

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Sunil Kumar Chhabra, V.K. Vijayan, M. Rahman, V. Mittal, P.D. Singh

Regression Equations for Spirometry in Children Aged 6 to 17 Years in Delhi Region

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:59 - 63]

Keywords: Pulmonary function, Spirometry, Normals, Children, Delhi, Regression equations

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-59  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background. Most of the studies carried out in India to develop regression equations for spirometry in children are now several years-to-decades old and had used equipment and measurement protocols that have since changed. Prediction equations using the current standardisation protocols for spirometry are not available. The lung health of the population may have changed too. Objective. To develop regression equations for spirometry for children aged 6 to 17 years of north Indian origin in Delhi region. Methods. School children of north Indian origin, as determined by mother tongue and parentage, aged 6 to 17 years were screened by a health questionnaire and physical examination and those found “normal” underwent spirometry according to the standardised procedure recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) task force in 2005. Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out to identify the predictor variables for spirometric parameters. Prediction equations were developed using the multiple linear regression procedure. The independent variables were entered in sequence of height, age and weight. R2, adjusted R2 and R2 change, standard errors of the estimate (SEE), and estimates of regression coefficients were obtained and the goodness of fit was examined. Results. Data was obtained in 365 boys and 305 girls. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow rate at 50% and 75% exhalation of vial capacity (F50 and F75) and mean forced expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the vital capacity (F25-75) showed moderate to strong correlations with age, height and weight in both boys and girls. In both genders, the equations explained very high variability of FVC, FEV1 and PEFR as shown by the R2 values. The explained variability for flow rates was lesser, with that for F75 being the least. Conclusions. Regression equations for spirometry variables for children of north Indian origin in Delhi region have been developed. These represent the first such effort from India after the publication of the ATS/ERS task force 2005 guidelines on standardisation of spirometry.

288

Panel of Reviewers—2011

S.N. Gaur

Panel of Reviewers—2011

[Year:2012] [Month:January-March] [Volume:54] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:70 - 72]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-54-1-70  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

257

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