How to cite this article:
Al-Ghobain M, Al-Moamary M, Al-Hajjaj M, Al-Fayez A, Basha S. Prevalence of Rhinitis Symptoms Among 16 to 18 Years Old Adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013; 55 (1):11-14.
Objective. The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among secondary school students in Saudi Arabia
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among children from secondary schools in the city of Riyadh. The study utilised the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire.
Results. Among the 3073 students (1504 boys and 1569 girls), the prevalence of life-time rhinitis, rhinitis in the past 12 months, and hay fever were 43.8%, 38.6% and 21.3%, respectively. There was a significant difference between boys and girls in the prevalence of life-time rhinitis (41% versus 46.5%, p=0.02) and the prevalence of rhinitis in the past 12 months (35.1% versus 41.9%, p=0.001). There was no significant difference between boys and girls in the prevalence of hay fever (22.5% versus 20.2%, p=0.144). The prevalence of asthma symptoms among students with life-time rhinitis and hay fever were 35.4% and 39.9%, respectively. Asthma symptoms were strongly linked with life-time rhinitis (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.5, p<0.001) and hay fever (OR=2.4, p value<0.001).
Conclusions. The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms is high among 16 to 18 years old adolescents in Saudi Arabia, and symptoms are more common in girls compared to boys. Rhinitis symptoms are also associated with a high frequency of asthma symptoms. [Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013;55:11-14]
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Pati DR, Khanna M, Kumar B, Kumar P, Rajput R, Saxena L, S, Gaur S. Clinical Presentation of Patients with Seasonal Influenza and Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) Requiring Hospitalisation. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013; 55 (1):15-19.
Background. A sudden increase in the number of novel influenza A virus (pH1N1-2009) infection prompted us to compare the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients infected with pH1N1-2009 and seasonal influenza A virus during the postpandemic phase.
Methods. During the period August 13 to September 27, 2010, case records of 106 patients with severe influenza like illness (ILI) and respiratory complications who underwent diagnostic testing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for confirmation of pH1N1-2009 were retrospectively studied.
Results. Nineteen (17.9%) patients were tested positive for pH1N1-2009 and 78 (73.6%) were tested positive for seasonal influenza A virus. The mean age of patients infected with pH1N1-2009 was 45.2±15.3 years (range of 22 to 80 years). Common presenting symptoms included fever in 17 (89.4%), cough in 16 (84.2%), myalgia in 15 (78.9%) and breathlessness in 10 (52.6%) patients. The most common comorbidities included bronchial asthma/bronchitis/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 4 (21%); followed by hypertension in 3 (15.8%) and diabetes in 3 (15.8%) patients. Overall, of the 97 influenza infected patients, 9 (9.3%) needed hospitalisation to the intensive care unit (ICU); one patient with COPD died due to multi-organ failure.
Conclusions. Both the pandemic and seasonal strains were found to be co-circulating in the community. Patients with severe hypoxia, hypertension, acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock required ICU care.
Background. The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate. Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholesterol and/or total protein measurements for differentiating between exudates and transudates, and to compare it with Light's criteria. Methods. In this prospective study 60 patients with pleural effusion were included. Pleural fluid total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cholesterol as well as serum total protein and LDH levels along with other investigations were studied. Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was done on the basis of aetiology. Results. Based on clinical signs and symptoms, chest radiograph, other investigations and response to treatment, 49 of these effusions were classified as exudates and 11 as transudates. Using pleural fluid cholesterol levels at a cut-off point of greater than 60 mg/dL and/or total protein at a cut-off point of greater than 3 g/dL for distinguishing transudates and exudates, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), were 100 percent. Using Light's criteria for discriminating transudates and exudates, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 98%; 100%; 100% and 92%, respectively. The differences resulted from a mis-classification of one expected exudate as transudate by Light's criteria. Conclusion. Pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein are simple, cost-effective, and useful parameters in distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates, with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, compared to the use of Light's criteria.
Occupational lung diseases are caused or made worse by exposure to harmful substances in the work-place. “Pneumoconiosis” is the term used for the diseases associated with inhalation of mineral dusts. While many of these broadspectrum substances may be encountered in the general environment, many occur in the work-place for greater amounts as a result of industrial processes; therefore, a range of lung reactions may occur as a result of work-place exposure. Physicians in metropolitan cities are likely to encounter pneumoconiosis for two reasons: (i) patients coming to seek medical help from geographic areas where pneumoconiosis is common, and (ii) pneumoconiosis caused by unregulated small-scale industries that are housed in poorly ventilated sheds within the city. A sound knowledge about the various pneumoconioses and a high index of suspicion are necessary in order to make a diagnosis. Identifying the disease is important not only for treatment of the individual case but also to recognise and prevent similar disease in co-workers.
Vinaya S. Karkhanis,
Jyotsna M. Joshi
How to cite this article:
Sarkavas J, Karkhanis VS, Joshi JM. Primary Achalasia with Pneumoesophagus and Bronchopleural Fistula Causing Right Lung Collapse and Bronchiectasis. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013; 55 (1):35-37.
Mature teratoma is a common anterior mediastinal tumour. However, occurrence of transformed malignant component within it is very rare. We report a case of a 32-year-old female presenting with dry cough and chest pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a large thin-walled cystic lesion measuring 11.4cmx10.6cmx10.0cm in the anterior mediastinum. Right postero-lateral thoracotomy was performed and the tumour was completely excised. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen was suggestive of mature teratoma with transformed malignant component, adenocarcinoma (somatic-type malignancy).
We present a case of a 26-year-old male who underwent lobectomy for life-threatening haemoptysis due to aspergilloma in an old tuberculosis left upper lobe cavity who presented with recurrence of haemoptysis four years after the surgery. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed Aspergillus colonisation in the ectatic residual bronchus which is an uncommon complication of lobectomy. The patient was successfully managed with antifungal agents.
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Nandwani S, Pande A, Saluja M. A Case of Staphylococcus Toxic Shock Syndrome Presenting with Multiple Pneumatocoeles in the Chest. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013; 55 (1):45-47.
Staphylococcus toxic shock syndrome is a severe illness caused by infection with toxin producing Staphylococcus aureus and is associated with a poor outcome. We report a case of Staphylococcus TSS presenting with cough and expectoration along with multiple pneumatoceles visible on the chest radiograph that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome with eventual foci in brain. The patient was aggressively managed and recovered completely.
We report a case of a 42-year-old patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis complicated by pulmonary renal syndrome, i.e., diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient was treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drugs — intravenous cyclophosphamide and methyl prednisolone. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters improved substantially and remission is achieved.