Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: Where Do We Stand?
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:137 - 139]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-137 | Open Access | How to cite |
Transbronchial Needle Aspiration with Rapid On-site Evaluation: A Prospective Study on Efficacy, Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:141 - 144]
Keywords: Transbronchial needle aspiration, Rapid on-site evaluation, Bronchoscopy
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-141 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has an established role in diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal lesions. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of TBNA smears can determine the adequacy of TBNA smears that can obviate the need for repeat procedures, thus avoiding added cost. There is paucity of data from India showing efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ROSE. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the efficacy, feasibility and cost implications of ROSE assisted TBNA. Methods. Forty consecutive patients undergoing TBNA were enrolled and ROSE was performed on TBNA smears. The results were analysed using a comparative study design. Results. It was found that 45% of patients would have required a repeat bronchoscopy due to inadequacy of material, if ROSE was not used. Inadequate smears were more common in benign aetiologies than malignant ones. TBNA of mass lesions and lesions with endoluminal bulge give better results than TBNA of lymph nodes and without endoluminal bulge. Conclusions. ROSE was found to increase the yield of TBNA and help to prevent repeat procedures. It proved to be simple, cost-effective and feasible in Indian settings.
Role of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy and Utility of Bronchial Washings and Brushings in the Diagnosis of Lung Diseases
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:145 - 148]
Keywords: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy, Bronchial washings, Bronchial brushings, Transbronchial lung biopsy
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-145 | Open Access | How to cite |
Transbronchial lung biopsy via fiberoptic bronchoscope is an extremely useful technique by which bronchial as well as lung biopsies along with brushings and washings can be easily and safely taken.1 Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) was performed and biopsies were done in 250 patients. In addition, bronchial brushings and washings were also taken in 140 and 115 cases, respectively. Adequate material was obtained in 242 cases. The cases were broadly classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic categories. Malignancies and specific granulomatous diseases, tuberculosis and sarcoidosis were the main diseases diagnosed. Brushings showed a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 98.9% for the diagnosis of neoplasms. On the other hand, washings had only a 34.9% sensitivity and a 98.6% specificity in diagnosing neoplastic disorders. We concluded that FOB is a safe and effective tool in the diagnostic work-up of suspected malignancies and neoplastic lung diseases.
Tuberculosis Risk in Health Care Workers
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:149 - 154]
Keywords: Tuberculosis, Nosocomial transmission, Health care workers
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-149 | Open Access | How to cite |
Risk to health care workers (HCW) is of paramount importance in the global fight against tuberculosis (TB). There is mounting evidence that they are at increased risk of contracting TB infection as well as developing the disease. This occupational risk is at alarming proportions in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), because of increased exposure and lack of preventive measures. Although tuberculin skin test has been used for a long time to detect latent TB infection (LTBI), it has significant drawbacks. Interferon-gamma release assays arrived with a lot of promise, but the expected benefit of more specific diagnosis has not yet been proved. The treatment of LTBI is an area, which is not well studied in LMIC. Effective environmental and personal protective measures along with education to the patients and the HCW needs to be carried out expeditiously, to reduce the occupational risk of TB.
Intra-pulmonary Teratoma: A Rare Case
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:155 - 157]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-155 | Open Access | How to cite |
Severe Right Heart Failure in a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A Diagnostic Challenge
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:159 - 162]
Keywords: Diffusion capacity, COPD, Right heart failure
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-159 | Open Access | How to cite |
A 55-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of severe dyspnoea and hypoxaemia. Physical examination upon admission showed elevated jugular venous pressure and an accentuated second heart sound. Chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with increased bibasilar markings. Arterial blood gas analysis while breathing room air showed marked hypoxaemia. High resolution computed tomography angiography of the chest showed modestly enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes with discrete diffuse ground-glass attenuation especially at the lower lung zones. Positron emission tomography using 18F labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) demonstrated the mediastinal lymph nodes were FDG-avid. Transthoracic echocardiography showed dilated hypokinetic right heart chambers with bulging of the interventricular septum to the left, compatible with acute cor-pulmonale. From the tricuspid regurgitation jet measurement a systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of 48mmHg was estimated. Patent foramen ovale was suspected on bubble test. Right heart catheterisation confirmed pulmonary arterial hypertension: mPAP 47mmHg, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure 5mmHg, cardiac index 1.1 L/min/m2, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) 959 dyne.sec.cm-5. Pulmonary function tests showed a marked diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) decrease of 32% predicted but no obstructive lung deficit. Before an open lung biopsy could be scheduled the patient developed acute cardiogenic shock. At autopsy pulmonary veno-occlusive disease with marked pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed.
Contained Cardiac Rupture: An Autopsy Case
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:163 - 165]
Keywords: Myocardial infarction, Pericardial fibrosis, Pseudoaneurysm
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-163 | Open Access | How to cite |
Rupture of the myocardium due to myocardial infarction is often fatal but when such patients survive, they present with a pseudoaneurysm where the defect is sealed by the pericardium preventing the complete rupture. This is described as a ‘contained myocardial rupture’. We describe here a case of left ventricular contained myocardial rupture following an acute myocardial infarction.
Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Pleura
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:167 - 169]
Keywords: Mesothelioma, Fibroma, Thoracotomy
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-167 | Open Access | How to cite |
Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the pleura is a rare, usually benign primary tumour of the pleura. Spectrum of presentation can vary from an incidental finding on chest radiograph done for some other purpose, features of compression of surrounding structures to symptoms resulting from the tumour per se. We report a case of a female who presented with complaints of cough and chest pain in whom a diagnosis of SFT was confirmed on tru-cut biopsy and immunohistochemistry studies. The patient underwent thoracotomy and successful removal of the tumour.
Solitary Fibrous Tumour of Lung
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:171 - 173]
Keywords: Fibrous tumour, Lung neoplasm
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-171 | Open Access | How to cite |
Fibrous tumours arising entirely within the substance of the lung are rare. We report one such rare case in whom the diagnosis was established after surgical removal
Maxillary Sinus Tuberculosis: Various Presentations
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:175 - 177]
Keywords: Extra-pulmonary, Maxillary sinus, Tuberculosis
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-175 | Open Access | How to cite |
Tuberculosis (TB) of the maxillary sinus is rare. We describe the clinical presentation, management and outcome in two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative patients with histopathologically confirmed maxillary sinus TB. One of the patients who presented earlier in the course of the disease could be managed with antituberculosis treatment alone, while the other who presented late required surgical intervention as well.
Rhodococcus Equi Bacteremia from Lung Abscess in an Immunocompetent Child
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:179 - 180]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-179 | Open Access | How to cite |
Profile of Lung Cancer in Predominantly Bidi Smoking Rural Population of Northern Himachal Pradesh
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:181 - 181]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-181 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:183 - 185]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-183 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2013] [Month:July-September] [Volume:55] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:187 - 192]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-55-3-187 | Open Access | How to cite |