Do Sleep Disorders Predispose to the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:77 - 79]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-77 | Open Access | How to cite |
A Comparative Study of Skin Prick Test versus Serum-Specific IgE Measurement in Indian Patients with Bronchial Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:81 - 85]
Keywords: Allergy, Asthma, Rhinitis, Serum specific IgE, Skin prick test
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-81 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background: Skin prick testing (SPT) is the ‘gold standard’ in the assessment of allergic sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Serum-specific immunoglobulin E (SSIgE) measurement is a complementary test. SPT is performed with antigen extracts from India while SSIgE utilises extracts derived from European antigens. Objective: To evaluate the performance of allergic assessment by SSIgE against cockroach, housefly and mosquito aeroallergens which are frequently implicated in driving respiratory allergies in India considering SPT as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Twenty patients (mean age 28.5 years; range 15-50 years) diagnosed to have bronchial asthma and/or rhinitis underwent SPT. The SSIgE levels were obtained at the same visit. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SSIgE testing were calculated using SPT as the ‘gold standard’. The correlation between SPT grading and SSIgE levels was also evaluated. Results: The sensitivity of SSIgE testing to each of the 3 aero-allergens was >85%. The PPV of cockroach and mosquito SSIgE was >85%; housefly SSIgE had PPV of 68.7%. The two tests were in agreement in 85% (cockroach), 90% (mosquito) and 55% (housefly). There was a significant correlation between the grades of SPT reactions and SSIgE levels. Conclusions: The SSIgE has higher sensitivity and PPV, but lacks specificity. Higher sensitivity with low specificity leads to increased false positive diagnosis of allergic disease. Unlike allergenic pollens, however, insect antigen extracts from different regions seem to give comparable results, and can thus, reliably be used in the evaluation of allergy.
A Study of Depression in Adult Patients with Bronchial Asthma Presenting to a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:87 - 90]
Keywords: Asthma, Depression, Asthma control, Severity
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-87 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background: Bronchial asthma is a serious global health problem. Depression, the most common mood disorder, is often found to be higher among people with chronic health conditions like bronchial asthma. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed to have bronchial asthma (n=100) who fulfilled the study criteria were evaluated for depression with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Severity and level of bronchial asthma control were determined as per Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Subjective asthma severity was assessed by Perceived Control of Asthma Questionnaire. Follow-up evaluation was done after three months of asthma management with the same study tools. Results: In our study population, 65% asthma patients showed depression on first visit (95% Confidence interval [CI] 55.65-74.35). Correlation coefficient between subjective asthma severity and severity of depression was -0.945 (p<0.001) while correlation coefficient between objective asthma severity and depression severity was 0.066 (p=0.515). In follow-up visit after asthma management 63% patients still had depression (95% CI 53.54-72.46). Correlation coefficient between objective asthma control and depression severity was 0.1 (p=0.320). Correlation coefficient between subjective asthma severity and severity of depression was -0.979 (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our observational study suggests that depression is highly prevalent in asthma patients. There is a high inverse correlation between depression and patient's perception of asthma control. However, no significant correlation could be observed between objective measures of asthma severity and depression.
Interpretation of Spirometry: Selection of Predicted Values and Defining Abnormality
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:15] [Pages No:91 - 105]
Keywords: Pulmonary function, Spirometry, Normals, Prediction equations
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-91 | Open Access | How to cite |
Spirometry is the most frequently performed investigation to evaluate pulmonary function. It provides clinically useful information on the mechanical properties of the lung and the thoracic cage and aids in taking management-related decisions in a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. Few measurements in medicine are so dependent on factors related to equipment, operator and the patient. Good spirometry requires quality assured measurements and a systematic approach to interpretation. Standard guidelines on the technical aspects of equipment and their calibration as well as the test procedure have been developed and revised from time-to-time. Strict compliance with standardisation guidelines ensures quality control. Interpretation of spirometry data is based only on two basic measurements — the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and their ratio, FEV1/FVC. A meaningful and clinically useful interpretation of the measured data requires a systematic approach and consideration of several important issues. Central to interpretation is the understanding of the development and application of prediction equations. Selection of prediction equations that are appropriate for the ethnic origin of the patient is vital to avoid erroneous interpretation. Defining abnormal values is a debatable but critical aspect of spirometry. A statistically valid definition of the lower limits of normal has been advocated as the better method over the more commonly used approach of defining abnormality as a fixed percentage of the predicted value. Spirometry rarely provides a specific diagnosis. Examination of the flow-volume curve and the measured data provides information to define patterns of ventilatory impairment. Spirometry must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical information including results of other investigations.
Massive Recurrent Pleural Effusion in a 35-Year-Old Non-Smoking Male
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:107 - 108]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-107 | Open Access | How to cite |
Isolated Endobronchial Capillary Haemangioma: A Rare Cause of Haemoptysis in Adult
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:109 - 111]
Keywords: Haemangioma, Capillary, Endobronchial haemangioma, Haemoptysis
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-109 | Open Access | How to cite |
Endobronchial capillary haemangioma is a very rare benign tumour in adults. The clinical presentation and management of adult capillary haemangiomas involving the tracheo-bronchial tree is not yet established. We present a case of an isolated capillary haemangioma of the left main bronchus detected during the evaluation of an adult male presented with haemoptysis. The lesion was managed successfully bronchoscopically.
A 54-Year-Old Man with Tracheomegaly, Tracheal Diverticulas and Bronchiectasis — Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:113 - 115]
Keywords: Mounier-Kuhn syndrome, Tracheomegaly, Bronchoscopy, Dynamic collapse
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-113 | Open Access | How to cite |
Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare idiopathic clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic disorder characterised by abnormal dilatation of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The usual presentation is with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Herein, we report the case of an adult male who was diagnosed to have Mounier-Kuhn syndrome based on radiographic finding of a tracheal diameter of 45.5 mm on computed tomography and dynamic complete collapse of the tracheo-bronchial tree on forced expiration, observed during ronchoscopy.
Swyer-James-Macleod Syndrome: A Rare Entity
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:117 - 119]
Keywords: Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome, Unilateral hyperlucency
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-117 | Open Access | How to cite |
Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome is a radiological entity characterised by hyperlucency of one or more lobes or of the entire lung associated with decreased number and diameter of ipsilateral peripheral pulmonary vessels resulting in difficult visibility of the arterial network, and unobstructed bronchial system. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with chief complaint of pain in the chest. Chest radiograph (postero-anterior view) showed hyperlucent left lung field with increased lung volume and shift of the mediastinum to the right side. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the chest showed hyperlucency and diminished vascularity in the upper lobe and lingula of left lung with hyperinflation of the pulmonary parenchyma. On the basis of clinical and radiological findings, the patient was diagnosed to have Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome.
Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangitis Presenting as Cardiac Tamponade
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:121 - 123]
Keywords: EGPA, Pericardial tamponade
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-121 | Open Access | How to cite |
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA; earlier called Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a small-vessel necrotising vasculitis typically characterised by asthma, lung infiltrates, extra-vascular necrotising granulomas and hyper-eosinophilia. Cardiac disease is a major contributor to disease-related deaths in EGPA. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with late onset asthma, allergic rhinosinusitis, and high extra-vascular and peripheral blood eosinophilia, presenting with peripheral neuropathy and pericardial effusion. Early therapy with intravenous corticosteroids led to resolution of the pericardial effusion and significant clinical improvement. The present case also highlights the importance of being vigilant about potentially fatal cardiac complications in patients with EGPA.
Co-existence of Bronchiectasis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:125 - 127]
Keywords: COPD, Bronchiectasis, Exacerbation
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-125 | Open Access | How to cite |
We present the case of a 56-year-old male who presented with cough and breathlessness. Chest radiograph (postero-anterior view) showed bulla and signs of hyperinflation in the right upper zone with cystic shadows in the left lower zone. Spirometry showed severe irreversible airflow obstruction with restriction and decreased diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. On high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), right upper lobe bulla with emphysematous changes and left lower lobe cystic bronchiectasis were seen. Considering its rarity of occurrence and paucity of data in literature regarding co-existence of bronchiectasis with emphysema, this case is being reported.
Wegener's Granulomatosis: Are We Still Missing It?
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:129 - 131]
Keywords: C-ANCA, TB, ATT, ANCA
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-129 | Open Access | How to cite |
We report the case of an 18-year-old female who was mis-diagnosed as a smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and advised standard antituberculosis treatment. She later presented with clinio-radiological worsening and thrombosis of superficial veins of the lower extremity. Cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and computed tomographyguided lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. The rare association of superficial vein thrombosis with lung manifestation is highlighted here as also the need for a high index of clinical suspicion to avoid a missed or delayed diagnosis.
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA): A Practical Approach
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:132 - 133]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-132 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:134 - 134]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-134 | Open Access | How to cite |
Clinical Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Management
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:135 - 135]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-135 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:136 - 136]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-136 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:137 - 140]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-137 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:57] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:141 - 146]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-2-141 | Open Access | How to cite |