Medical Education in India: Critical Challenges and Solutions
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:215 - 217]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-215 | Open Access | How to cite |
Clinical Profile of Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Adults: A Retrospective Study
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:219 - 223]
Keywords: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax, Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, Tube thoracostomy, Brochopleural fistula
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-219 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background: Pneumothorax is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but limited data are available regarding the aetiology, clinical profile, management and outcome of spontaneous pneumothorax from India in recent times. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at a Government chest hospital which included patients with the diagnosis of spontaneous pneumothorax seen over a period of one year. Demographic, clinical, radiological and treatment data were collected from hospital records and analysed. Results: Of the 86 patients studied (male:female = 4:1), two had primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and 84 had secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP). The annual incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax was calculated to be 1590 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Annual incidence figures for PSP and SSP were 37 and 1553 per 100,000, respectively. The most common cause of SSP was found to be pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that pneumothorax is more common among men. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax is more common than PSP and the most common cause of SSP was pulmonary TB followed by COPD.
Pollutant Levels at Cooking Place and Their Association with Respiratory Symptoms in Women in a Rural Area of Delhi-NCR
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:225 - 231]
Keywords: Biomass fuels, Volatile organic compounds, Tobacco smoke, Indoor air pollution
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-225 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background: Household air pollution resulting from biomass and coal stoves is implicated in more than one-third cases of annual deaths from chronic lung diseases worldwide and nearly 3% of lung cancer deaths. This burden is borne largely by poor women in the developing countries. We carried out a study to evaluate its association with respiratory symptoms in women in a rural area. Methods: The study was carried out using a standard questionnaire, in 92 households including 174 women. The data on respiratory symptoms in women, kitchen type and location in households, type of fuel used for cooking, permanent ventilation in kitchen, presence of exhaust, history of tobacco smoking and indoor pollution level were obtained. Spirometery of participants was conducted. The indoor particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in each home. Results: The households were divided into two groups according to the location of the kitchen. In 46 households (Group A) women had a separate room as kitchen for cooking with good ventilation and exhaust conditions; and in the remaining 46 households (Group B) cooking was done in the living area. Seventy (76.1%) households used biomass fuel for cooking and heating (37; 80.4%, in Group A versus 46; 100% in Group B). The proportion of women with respiratory symptoms for one year or more was significantly high in Group B compared to Group A (13.0% versus 3.1% p=0.01). The households which did not have a separate kitchen (Group B) had higher particulate matter and VOCs concentration. Conclusions: This study contributes to the growing evidence of adverse impact of indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on health of females. Results of the study demonstrated significantly high particulate matter (PM2.5), in households not using a separate room for cooking with biomass fuel.
Ischaemic Cavitation in Conglomerate Silicosis
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:233 - 234]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-233 | Open Access | How to cite |
Pulmonary Tumourlets: Case Report and Review of Literature
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:235 - 238]
Keywords: Pulmonary tumourlets, Carcinoid, Neuroendocrine hyperplasia, Bullectomy
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-235 | Open Access | How to cite |
We report a case of tumourlets of the lung associated with carcinoid and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, found incidentally in a 30-year-old woman, who underwent bullectomy for pneumothorax. These lesions are histologically similar to carcinoid, but differ in molecular pathogenesis about which little is known. Their nature and significance is debated. Here, we point out the importance of histological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects and follow-up to have evidence of eventual malignant evolution.
Adenocarcinoma of Lung Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:239 - 241]
Keywords: Interstitial lung disease, Adenocarcinoma
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-239 | Open Access | How to cite |
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) presenting as lung cancer have been reported rarely from India. The present case describes a possibly primary lung cancer in a non-smoker who presented radiologically as a case of ILD. The possible mechanisms available in the literature are discussed.
Bilateral Pleural Effusion: A Rare Case Report
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:243 - 245]
Keywords: Inferior vena cava obstruction, Ascites, Pleural effusion, CHF, Budd-Chiari syndrome, Balloon dilatation
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-243 | Open Access | How to cite |
A 24-year-old female presented with complaints of distension of abdomen, lower limb swelling and shortness of breath. On examination, she had bilateral pedal oedema, tender mild hepatomegaly, bilateral pleural effusion and ascites. She had received treatment on lines of chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure but did not manifest any improvement. Laboratory investigations including haemogram, echocardiography and liver function testing were inconclusive. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of abdomen revealed obstruction at the junction of inferior vena cava and hepatic vein with pre-stenotic dilatation confirming the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome. She was treated with balloon dilatation from right femoral vein and the patient showed marked recovery with decrease in ascites and bilateral pleural effusion and improvement in dyspnoea and leg swelling.
A Case of Good's Syndrome Presenting with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:247 - 250]
Keywords: Thymoma, Good's syndrome, Tuberculosis, Opportunistic infection
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-247 | Open Access | How to cite |
Adult onset immunodeficiency associated with thymoma is a rare condition. The combination of hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced number of peripheral B and CD4+ T cells, along with thymoma constitutes Good's syndrome (GS). This immunodeficiency condition is often complicated with opportunistic infection with organisms, like bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumonia etc), viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex etc), fungi and protozoa. We present an unusual case of Good's syndrome with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). A 40-year-old man presented with sputum-positive PTB and was started on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Subsequently, he developed symptoms and findings consistent with thymoma and other components of Good's syndrome. Although patients of Good's syndrome are susceptible to various opportunistic infections, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. Evidence of recurrent infections or some opportunistic infection in a thymoma patient should trigger a suspicion of Good's syndrome.
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:251 - 253]
Keywords: Pulmonary agenesis, Hypoplasia, Respiratory distress, Newborn
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-251 | Open Access | How to cite |
Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems.1 We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.
Mediastinal Gray Zone Lymphoma
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:255 - 257]
Keywords: Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin's large B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Overlapping features
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-255 | Open Access | How to cite |
A 50-year-old male presented with cough and breathlessness. A positron emissoin tomography scan revealed FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) avid mediastinal mass. Tru-cut biopsy showed fibrotic stromal tissue with cellular infiltrate consisting of abnormal lymphoid cells and few large cells with smudged nucleus. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse positivity with CD20, focal positivity for CD30 and rare CD15 positive cells. Histological picture and immune profile showed overlaping features of non-Hodgkin's as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. A diagnosis of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma was made. The patient showed a complete metabolic response to six cycles of chemotherapy.
Spirometry Changes in Cold Climatic Conditions of Antarctica
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:259 - 260]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-259 | Open Access | How to cite |
Background: Pulmonary function is one of the important physiological measures that is known to be affected during the changes in the altitude. There is dearth of literature on changes in the pulmonary function variables in the cold climate conditions of Antarctica. We carried out spirometry before, during and after one year stay at Antarctica in members of the Indian expedition. Methods: Spirometry was carried out on 23 members of the XXVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica at baseline, after six months of expedition and at the end of one year, using standard guidelines. The tests were carried out indoor in temperature controlled laboratory. Results: The pulmonary function test parameters did not vary across the period. Although, both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) showed a decreasing trend but did not attain any statistical significance. However, peak expiratory flow (PEFR) rate was reduced significantly. Conclusion: Our study did not show consistently significant change in the pulmonary function parameters in the members of the Indian Antarctic expedition.
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:261 - 264]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-261 | Open Access | How to cite |
Authors' Index — 2015 [Vol. 57, Nos. 1–4]
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:265 - 267]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-265 | Open Access | How to cite |
[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:269 - 274]
DOI: 10.5005/ijcdas-57-4-269 | Open Access | How to cite |