The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences

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2022 | April-June | Volume 64 | Issue 2

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Raj Kumar, David W Denning, Anuradha Chowdhary

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Burden and Healthcare Facilities

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:61 - 62]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0007  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



D. Behera

To End Tuberculosis, India must Embrace Innovation: Lessons from the ZeNix Trial Results

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:63 - 64]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0005  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Parikshit Thakare, Ketaki Utpat, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M. Joshi

Clinical Profile, Adverse Drug Reaction, and Outcome of Category V Patients at a Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Center, Mumbai

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:65 - 67]

Keywords: Adverse drug reaction, Category V, Drug-resistant tuberculosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0001  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Drug regimens for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are composed of salvage drugs to which a patient has never been exposed to previously. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in a DR-TB Center attached to a medical college in a metropolitan city using the database of category V patients (n = 100) who were prediagnosed and referred. The clinical records of the patients were reviewed for demographic data, history, sputum examinations, co-morbidities, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The therapy outcomes were assessed as per Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines. Results: Their mean age was 29.1 years; there were 57 males. Mean body weight was 41.8 kg. Pediatric patients (age 12–17) constituted 13%. All the patients had pulmonary TB. Of the 100 cases, 80 were Category IV failure; 5% were defaulters of Category IV; and 15% were treated with second-line drugs adequately in private. Durg-susceptibility test (DST) showed extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in 63 and pre-XDR-TB in 37 patients. The outcomes of Category V treatment were cure (7%), died (33%), failed on therapy (4%), transferred out (16%), lost to follow-up (2%), and still on the therapy (35%). Various comorbidities were present in 25% patients. ADRs were seen in 44%, and peripheral neuropathy (18%) was the most commonly observed ADR. Conclusions: DR-TB patients were younger and males were more affected. Mortality of Category V regimen was high (33%). Most common comorbidities were anemia and hypothyroidism. Adverse reactions were common (44%); ADR peripheral neuropathy being the most common.


Original Article

Ajay Babu, Ankit Pandey, Archana Baburao, Huliraj Narayanswamy

Syndrome Z: Its Response to CPAP Therapy

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:68 - 72]

Keywords: Apnea, Blood pressure, Continuous positive airway pressure, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome, Obstructive sleep

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0012  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high. The association of OSA and metabolic syndrome is termed as syndrome Z. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on metabolic syndrome is still controversial. Materials and methods: A total of 145 newly diagnosed patients with OSA were enrolled in this prospective interventional study, who underwent CPAP therapy for 8 weeks. Baseline data including anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance and fasting lipid profile of all the study patients were collected before and after the intervention. We determined prevalence of metabolic syndrome in OSA and the effect of CPAP on the components of metabolic syndrome was determined. Results: One hundred-and-six (73.1%) patients were found to have metabolic syndrome. Eighty-four patients were compliant with CPAP therapy. There was statistically significant reduction in glucose systolic (5.5 mm Hg, p = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (3.5 mm Hg, p = 0.002), fasting (4.2 mg/dL, p = 0.02), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (1.4, p = 0.04) and triglycerides (17.3 mg/dL, p = 0.008) after CPAP therapy. There was modest reversal of metabolic syndrome manifestations in 22 of 84 patients (26.2%) after CPAP therapy. In the CPAP complaint group, a significant reduction in dyslipidemia (p = 0.04) was noted compared to non-compliant group. Conclusion: In patients with syndrome Z, 8 weeks of CPAP therapy was associated with reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and triglycerides and modest reversal of metabolic syndrome manifestations.


Original Article

Abhinav Aggarwal

Role of Computed Tomography-guided Fine-needle Aspiration Cytology/Biopsy in Management of Lung Lesions: Experience of a Tertiary Care Oncology Hospital

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:73 - 78]

Keywords: Biopsy, Computed tomography, Fine-needle aspiration cytology, Histopathology, Lung lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0013  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy are routinely used methods for the diagnosis of lung lesions. In sampling of lung lesions, computed tomography (CT) is used to provide direction to the needle. The procedure is related with few complications. Methods: In this retrospective study, records of 247 patients who underwent CT-guided FNAC and/or biopsy at our tertiary care oncology-specific hospital during a calendar year (2015) were analyzed. The pretest coagulation profiles, predisposing emphysematous conditions on CT, and patient demographics were recorded. Lesion demographics included site, size, and depth. Postprocedure complications and diagnosis on cytology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were tabulated. Results: Out of 247 patients, 160 (64.8%) were males. Most patients belonged to 51–60 years age group. Adenocarcinoma was the most common primary tumor of lung whereas carcinoma breast was the most common secondary diagnosed. Thirty (12.1%) patients developed complications after the procedure, with 29 of these having pneumothorax. Conclusions: Computed tomography-guided FNAC and/or biopsy is a safe and reliable tool to diagnose lung lesions.


Original Article

Ramniwas, Rajani Kumawat, Dipak Bhattacharya, J. C. Suri

Clinico-pathological Profile of Lung Cancer Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital, India: A Prospective, Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:79 - 85]

Keywords: Clinico-pathological profile, India, Lung cancer, Molecular profile

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0002  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the commonest subtype of lung cancer, though a number of studies in India have observed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to be the commonest histology. Majority of Indian studies on clinico-pathological profile are retrospective and there is limited data on comparison of demographic, clinical, and radiological features among histological subgroups of lung cancer. Methods: Three-hundred and twelve consecutive confirmed cases of lung cancer diagnosed from December 2014 to January 2017 were enrolled prospectively. Data pertaining to the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological, and molecular profile were analyzed. Results: Their mean age was 57.2 ± 10.8 years. Of all the lung cancer patients studied, 80.5% were males and 73.4% were smokers. Across all histological subtypes, the commonest symptom was cough (76.9%). Chest pain, hoarseness of voice, dysphagia, and neck veins engorgement were significantly higher in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cases, while hemoptysis in SCC cases. The most common radiological finding was a mass lesion predominantly located, peripherally in cases with ADC and SCC lung, while centrally in SCLC. The most common site for distant metastasis was the bone (32.5%), followed by the liver, adrenal, brain, and other organs. ADC, SCC, and SCLC constituted 48.1, 32.1, and 14.4%, respectively. Incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in ADC patients were 26.5% and 7.8%, respectively, with a predilection for nonsmokers. The most common EGFR mutation was exon 19 deletions. Conclusions: Adenocarcinoma lung may now be replacing SCC as the commonest type of lung cancer in Northern India. The overall incidence of EGFR mutations in ADC patients was 26.5%, with exon 19 deletion being the most common mutation.


Original Article

Y. N. Dholakia

Comprehensive Approach to Tuberculosis Case Detection: Experience from an Urban Slum, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:86 - 93]

Keywords: Active case finding, Comprehensive approach, High burden areas, India, Treatment outcomes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0015  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Passive case finding leaves a number of tuberculosis (TB) cases unidentified which leads to increased transmission, morbidity, and mortality. Different approaches for case detection are needed to meet the End TB Strategy targets. Materials and methods: Between August 2014 and March 2016, a non-governmental organization (NGO) screened the population in two high burden areas of Mumbai through door-to-door survey, involving private practitioners, engaging community and contact surveys to identify cases early and initiate treatment for TB through a comprehensive approach to active case finding (ACF) in a community. A retrospective analysis of the data collected from this intervention was done. Results: Of 6230 symptomatic (3% of population), 3836 (61.5%) undertook tests, 652 (17%) were diagnosed with TB, and 591 (90.6%) were started on treatment. Through door-to-door survey, private practitioners, contact examination, and community engagement, 59%, 26%, 6.4%, and 8.6% cases were identified. Of these, 64% were females and 29% were of extra-pulmonary TB. Of 581 cases, 444 (76.4%) were successfully treated; 14 (2.4%) died; 7 (1.2%) failed treatment; 46 (7.9%) were drug-resistant TB; 33 (5.6%) lost to follow-up; and 37 (6.1%) were transferred out. Numbers needed to screen are 365, 11, and 20 of community, symptomatic, and household contacts, respectively. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach to active case finding identifies cases early, is feasible, and could be an effective complementary TB case detection strategy.


Original Article

Surabhi Jaggi, Ashok Kumar Janmeja, Deepak Aggarwal

Role of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:94 - 98]

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Lung cancer, Pulmonary rehabilitation, Respiratory disease

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0004  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Patients with advanced lung cancer often suffer from poor mobility and quality-of-life (QoL). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been seen to improve exercise capacity and health-related QoL (HRQoL) in different respiratory diseases. Methods: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PR in advanced non-operable non-small cell lung cancer patients on several outcomes compared to the control group. Forty eligible patients were randomized to receive chemotherapy and 8-weeks of supervised, hospital-based PR twice a week (cases) vs only standard chemotherapy (controls). Exercise capacity (6-minute walk distance), HRQoL, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) scale, spirometry, dyspnea score [modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) grade] and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis were measured in both the groups at baseline and at the end of 8 weeks. Results: After PR, there was significant improvement in the 6MWD (change in 6MWD: cases 16.3 + 34.3 m vs controls −20.5 + 49 m; p = 0.03) and total FACT-L score (change in score: cases 18.9 + 7.3 vs controls −8.8 + 13.4; p ≤0.001) in the “cases” group as compared to controls. However, there was no significant improvement in dyspnea, spirometry, and ABG values. Conclusions: Comprehensive PR can improve exercise capacity and HRQoL in advanced lung cancer patients on concurrent chemotherapy. It may be an integral part of the management of these patients.


Radiology Forum

Ram Babu Sah, RS Pal

A Triad of Tracheomegaly, Tracheal Diverticula, and Bronchiectasis

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:99 - 100]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0008  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Mulukoju Ravindra Chari, Pratap Upadhya, Leo Sneha, Pampa Toi

Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica and Lung Carcinoma: A Rare Combination

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:101 - 103]

Keywords: Bronchoscopy, Lung neoplasm, Osteochondrodysplasias

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0010  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is a rare benign idiopathic disorder of unknown cause affecting the large airways. Bronchoscopy and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax establish the diagnosis, but biopsy is confirmatory. We describe a case of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, rarely associated with lung cancer. There should be a high index of suspicion of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, especially in patients with malignancy; as it can easily be missed in a patient with lung malignancy.



Muniza Bai, Govindaraj Vishnukanth, Adimoolam Ganga Ravindra

Isolated Unilateral Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: Report of Two Cases

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:104 - 107]

Keywords: Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram, Lung, Unilateral agenesis of pulmonary artery

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0011  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Unilateral agenesis of pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs due to malformation of the sixth aortic arch and about 70% of the patients have associated cardiovascular anomalies. However, UAPA without any associated cardiovascular anomalies is termed isolated UAPA. Cases of isolated UAPA may remain asymptomatic and survive into adulthood. Majority of the adults are asymptomatic and can present with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a poor prognosis. There is no specific treatment for UAPA. We report two patients of UAPA with adult presentation.



K. Gowrinath, Mohan K Manu, Kiran Chawla

Nocardia otitidiscaviarum as Possible Etiologic Agent of Non-resolving Pneumonia

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:108 - 110]

Keywords: Amoxycillin–clavulanic acid, Nocardiosis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Pneumonia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0014  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is an infrequent cause of nocardial pneumonia and rarely affects non-immunocompromised individuals. Pneumonia may not resolve if the causative organism is not susceptible to the empirically given antimicrobial drug. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid is a commonly used initial empiric antibiotic for suspected community-acquired bacterial pneumonia on outpatient basis. We report an unusual case of N. otitidiscaviarum as a possible etiologic agent of non-resolving pneumonia due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in a previously healthy adult male.



Sandeep Nayar, Manish Garg, Sunny Kalra, Amir Nadeem

Unilateral Presentation of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:111 - 113]

Keywords: Biopsy, Breathlessness, Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, High-resolution computed tomography, Lipoproteinaceous, Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, Whole lung lavage

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0017  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder, in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates within the alveoli. We report a case of a 27-year-old male patient with acute worsening of breathlessness over the last 7–8 months and cough with desaturation up to 79% on room air. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography of the thorax revealed unilateral diffuse crazy-paving pattern likely PAP. Transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAP. The present case highlights the unusual presentation of PAP with unilateral involvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral PAP from India with a biopsy diagnosis and resolution with whole lung lavage.



Manisha Bhardwaj, Surender Kashyap

Approach to Optimal Oxygen Therapy in the Management of COVID-19 Patients during Pandemic: An Indian Perspective

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:10] [Pages No:114 - 123]

Keywords: Awareness, COVID-19, Crisis, Oxygen, Rationale, Solutions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0016  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: A sudden spike in positive cases in the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic took Government, Public, and Healthcare system by surprise in India. It was bigger and deadlier than the first wave. Unsupervised oxygen delivery practiced in oxygen buses and pandals by untrained individuals was a matter of concern and should have been discouraged. This resulted in wastage of oxygen which could have led to catastrophic consequences. Awareness about the optimal use of oxygen by identifying errors in prescribing/practicing oxygen therapy will go a long way in saving lives. This article provides a quick review of oxygen therapy with a focus on the rationale use of oxygen and plausible solutions to mitigate wastage in a resource-constrained scenario, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.



Anisha Garg, Biswaroop Chatterjee, Aarti Kotwal, Rishabh Bansal, Indranil Saha

Evaluating a Modified Ziehl-Neelsen Technique with Triton X-100 for Detecting Acid-fast Bacilli in Sputum

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:124 - 125]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0003  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Rajendra Prasad, Rishabh Kacker, Huda Shamim

Utility of Chest Computed Tomography for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:126 - 128]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0006  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases and influenced by host factors including abnormal lung development.1 Currently, the diagnosis of COPD is based on the clinical history of the patient along with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio lower than 0.70 on spirometry. Even though spirometry is considered the most valuable tool in diagnosing COPD, it lacks in certain aspects such as covering the morphological analysis of the disease and correlating between the lesions and lung function. Also, spirometry usually becomes abnormal pretty late in the disease evolution, and hence, is unable to identify early and pre-COPD patients leading to delayed diagnosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan provides in vivo assessment of organ structure and can prove itself to be a useful tool to provide additional information about parenchymal remodeling, airway dilation, and vascular calcification. This, in turn, can be useful to not only detect and stratify the severity of the disease but can also to predict its clinical course. We must consider the utility of CT scan to offer impactful therapy for what is found in those images. However, does this additional information really makes a difference in the management of COPD patients? Can this information be obtained using inexpensive and easy methods (such as spirometry and questionnaires)? Does this additional information really justify the expense of radiation exposure? This article highlights the utility, limitations, and future prospects of adding a chest CT scan as a routine investigation in patients with COPD.



Jyoti Bacche, Jyotsna M. Joshi, Ramesh N Bharmal

The QT Interval: What the Pulmonologist Needs to Know

[Year:2022] [Month:April-June] [Volume:64] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:129 - 131]

Keywords: Drugs, QT Interval, Torsades de points

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11007-0009  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The QT interval is an electrocardiographical measurement that denotes the time interval between the commencement and completion of the cardiac ventricular contraction process. Alterations in its value indicate abnormal cardiac rhythm and herald the risk of torsades de pointes; a fatal ventricular arrhythmia. Causes leading to a prolonged QT interval encompass a heterogeneous gamut including genetic conditions, electrolyte imbalances, hormonal imbalances, and drugs. A wide range of drugs can lead to a prolonged QT interval and these include certain crucial drugs which are routinely prescribed by a pulmonologist for infectious as well as non-infectious pulmonary indications. This becomes particularly relevant in this decade which has witnessed an excrescence in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. Certain vital drugs employed in its management prolong QT interval significantly. In these situations, the clinician faces the predicament of cautiously prescribing these drugs to eradicate the disease microbiologically whilst balancing the risk of sudden cardiac death due to torsades de pointes. We summarise the basics of QT interval which every pulmonologist presently needs to know.


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